The province of Riau alone emits more carbon than the Netherlands, the report said, as forests are cleared for pulp, paper and palm oil and carbon-rich peatlands are degraded.
The province lost 42,000 square kilometres or 65% of its forests in the past 25 years, it said.
"Forest loss and degradation and peat decomposition and fires are behind average annual carbon emissions equivalent to 122% of the
Netherlands’ total annual emissions," WWF said.
The rapid destruction of Riau’s forests was also helping to kill off the province’s endangered tigers and elephants, the group said.
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