The designers hope their projects will transform energy supplies and cut carbon emissions over the next 20 years.
Initiatives include the construction of huge wind turbines, more powerful than any seen before, anchored to the seabed 20 miles off the coast; fridges that monitor the national grid to use less power; a desalination plant that doubles up as a theatre; and a tidal lagoon that protects the coast while generating electricity.
"We are now learning from natural eco-systems, and are scaling up projects. We are going back to first principles, taking our inspiration from nature.", said Martin Pawlyn, an architect with Grimshaw.