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China should switch from grain-fed to grassland agriculture

Too much grain is being fed to livestock and should be replaced by grasslands, suggests Ren Jizhou, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering

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The development of grassland agriculture would allow for both agriculture and the environment to be taken care of, says Jizhou (Image by Charlie Luan)

chinadialogue: Why do you believe that Chinese agriculture is currently facing its greatest crisis?

Ren Jizhou:
Mainly because agricultural production and food demands are moving apart. Two-thirds of grain production is used to feed livestock, with corn and soya beans now the main sources of fodder. That’s a huge waste and comes at huge cost to the agricultural environment.

Between 1985 to 2012 average consumption of mutton and beef remained largely unchanged. But consumption of poultry went up from less than 5kg per person per year to about 20kg, while pork went up from about 15kg to about 40kg and dairy products from less than 5kg to almost 35kg. Meanwhile grain consumption fell significantly.

The result is that there's now much more demand for livestock fodder. The US raises about 60 million pigs, while China raises 600 million. In 2010 consumption of fodder in China reached 492 million tonnes. In the last five years China’s corn imports have increased 100-fold, alfalfa imports increased 22-fold, and soya imports increased 3-fold – mostly because of the demand for fodder.

CD: What do you expect to happen over the next decade?

Jizhou:
It is normal for consumption of meat and dairy products to increase in a modern society. Professor Huang Jikun of the State Council’s Agricultural Economy Research Centre found that in 2010 animal protein intake in China was as low as that of Korea in 1986, or Japan in 1961.

Today everyone is concerned about security of grain supply, but demand for grain as food is actually decreasing year on year. In 1986 grain consumption was 207kg per head, but by 2010 that had dropped by 28%. Meanwhile pork consumption rose from about 16kg to 37.5kg. If it takes 3.5 jin of grain to produce 1kg of pork, the food equivalent of that pork is 131.95kg. Urban residents eat only half as much grain as those in rural areas, and urbanisation is a major driver of falling grain demand.

Korea and Japan, also East Asian nations, have a similar food culture to China. Looking at their experiences, we can expect consumption of animal products in China to sustain quick growth for the coming 15 to 20 years, and then enter a lengthy period of slower growth. The demand for fodder is therefore set to increase further.

CD: Are there differences between China and the West?

Jizhou:
There are clear differences between China and the West when it comes to livestock farming.

China’s agricultural output comes mainly from crops. In the past Chinese farmers used to think of growing grain to raise pigs, which would provide fertiliser, which would be used to grow more grain, which would be used to raise more pigs.

But in the West meat, eggs, milk and livestock accounts for over 50% of agricultural output. Grass provides 70% of the fodder for animals, unlike in China where 70% of animal fodder comes from grain. 

CD: Why do you think grassland agriculture should be prioritised over grain in China?

Jizhou:
The development of grassland agriculture would allow for the production of both grain and grass, for both agriculture and the environment to be taken care of. And it could support more livestock. But the traditional grain-based views mean it will be hard to make those changes.

The strength of grass is in its biomass – the total organic content per area of land planted. The biomass of grass is three to five times higher than that of grain, and it produces four to eight times as much protein.

In the north, where water is scarce, it takes 1,000 tonnes of water to produce a tonne of grain. If that grain is then transported to the south you’re shifting water as well – that doesn’t make sense, not for the economy, not for the environment.

We’re facing the loss of water and soil from the Yellow River basin in the north, and also from the red soil regions south and the karst regions of the south-west, we also see widespread agricultural pollution. Planting grass for fodder in the warm and wet south would be less expensive than grain-growing, and would reduce the huge environmental costs of grain-growing.

Our concern is that a one-sided understanding of food security, and simply increasing grain production, ignores the changes in the make-up of our food. This creates waste and huge environmental costs, and overall we lose out.

On one hand we have Chinese people demanding more and more meat, eggs and milk, but on the other we try to maintain grain production and use much of that to feed pigs and cows – this can only lead to greater insecurity. 

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

文章并不现实

在草地上养殖反刍类动物(通常是一些草食动物)是中国自80年代以来采取的政策,但事实证明这一政策并不现实。90年代开始推行大型的“秸秆养牛”运动,还有一项在西南部开发牧场的运动——正是这里所介绍的。
牛羊肉在中国供不应求,导致价格自2007年以来一直居高不下。农民不愿饲养牛羊,因为时间周期太长,收益也不稳定。
中国的草地降解化严重,政府部门几十年来的恢复措施成效甚微。中国官方的政策是禁止传统的游牧,并推行以围栏牧场和牲口棚为特色的未经验证的生产模式。游牧人口被人为地放到一起,形成“小镇”,希望借此发展旅游;当地政府则从中央政府得到补贴。这种举措并不环保。科学配方的饲料包含充足的能量、蛋白质、维生素、氨基酸,效率要高得多。

Article is unrealistic

The strategy of raising ruminant animals on grasslands recommended here has been official policy in China since the 1980s but it has proven unrealistic. There was a big "straw for beef" program begun in the 1990s another was to develop pastures in highland areas of southwest China--exactly what is recommended here.

Beef and mutton prices in China have been soaring since 2007 because Chinese supplies can't meet the demand. Chinese farmers don't want to raise cattle that take years before they yield an uncertain profit.

Grasslands in China are seriously degraded and officials have been trying to renew them for decades with little or no success. The official Chinese approach to grasslands is to ban traditional nomadic grazing and substitute unproven production models featuring fenced-in pastures and barns. Nomads are packed off to artificially-created "towns" where they hope to draw tourists while local officials collect subsidies from the central government. This is not environmentally friendly. Scientifically formulated feeds with energy, protein, vitamins, and amino acids are much more efficient ways of raising animals.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国的草地已经过度放牧

任教授“恰好”忽略了一个事实:中国的草地已经承受着过牧的压力,导致严重的退化及沙漠化。事实上,在很多地区政府已经着手限制牧群规模,因此不可能将中国的肉类产量重担推给草地。肉类生产本身就是巨大的环境问题,肉类生产的方式倒是其次。

China's grasslands are already overgrazed

Prof. Ren conveniently ignores the fact that grasslands in China are already stressed by overgrazing, which has led to enormous degradation and desertification. The government is in fact working to limit the sizes of herds in many regions, so there is no possibility of shifting China's meat production to the grasslands. Meat production itself is a major environmental problem; the method of production is a secondary issue.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

好想法

我认为这是一个非常好的想法。我们都知道有些地方并不适合种植小麦、玉米和谷物,但却可以种植草地或者饲料。随着我国的发展和人民生活水平的提高,我们需要越来越多的肉、鸡蛋和牛奶。此外,人们想要吃的更健康,因此就需要更多的高蛋白和低脂肪的羊肉和牛肉。因此发展草地农业是非常有必要的。虽然我们面临着许多问题,但是我们正在努力解决他们。我们应该改变传统观念,重视发展草地农业。政府也应该更重视并支持发展草地农业,同时投更多的人力。

VERY GOOD IDEA

I think this is a very good idea.We know that there are some places where are not suitable for planting wheat,corn and cereals.But we can plant grass and some other forages here.Because they need less water and fertilizers than cereals.With the development of our country and people's living standard,we need more and more meat ,egg and milk.Besides,people want to eat much more healthier,so we need more mutton and beef which contains more protein and less fat.The development of grassland agriculture is necessary.Though there are many obstacles to overcome,we are trying to make it.Now we should change our traditional concept and realize the importance of grassland agriculture.The government should pay more attention to this and support the development of grassland agriculture.We need more and more people to participate in this career.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

非常正确

我认同任教授的观点

VERY GOOD

I AGREE WITH PRO REN