文章 Articles

“Dumb plastic” is killing our seas

In March, David de Rothschild set out on a mammoth Pacific crossing aboard the Plastiki to highlight ocean pollution. As the journey ends, even he was shocked by what he found, writes Tim Adams.

Article image

“After 100 days at sea,” David de Rothschild suggests, “you realise that it should be called planet Ocean rather than planet Earth.” De Rothschild was speaking from the island of New Caledonia – “an odd little bit of France in the South Seas” – the night before his boat, the Plastiki, embarked on the final leg of a voyage that should finish in Sydney harbour any day now.

The Plastiki, a revolutionary catamaran, is kept afloat by 12,500 plastic bottles in its hulls; the "eco-adventure" has been designed to draw attention to our systematic pollution and over-fishing of oceans. Since de Rothschild, the 31-year-old son of the banking dynasty, and his crew of five set out from San Francisco on March 20, they have discovered many things, but mainly, he says, they have learned about the sea, about its power and about its fragility.

The power was amply demonstrated on the leg of the journey completed in early July, the 2,735 kilometres miles from Samoa, during which the vessel's unconventional construction was rigorously tested by four-metre swells and 35-knot winds for days on end. It is hard not to be reminded of your insignificance in the universe, de Rothschild says, when hanging off the side of a yacht made partly of plastic bottles, 1,600 kilometres from land in the pitch dark, while the Pacific breaks over you.

The ocean's fragility they witnessed in the place where much of the world's discarded plastic ends up, the Pacific’s "eastern garbage patch". This, the focus of their voyage, is a floating "continent" of debris. Nothing that the crew had read in advance could prepare them for what they found navigating an area twice as large as the North Sea. "You don't see it at first," de Rothschild says. "But when you get into the sea, and under the water, you realise that it is all like a soup, millions and millions of tiny fragments of plastic, suspended in the water. It is mostly microscopic, but once your eye adjusts you start to see the reflectiveness of some of the larger pieces. The red fragments stand out most clearly."


The Plastiki in San Francisco Bay, before setting off across the Pacific.
Photo courtesy of the 
Plastiki team.
 
The garbage patch was first identified 12 years ago within the "North Pacific gyre" – a vortex where the ocean circulates slowly because of light wind and extreme high pressure systems. Oceanographers have since suggested that perhaps 100 million tonnes of plastic are held in suspension in these waters. One of the things that the Plastiki voyage has demonstrated is just how durable modern polymers are: the pressurised bottles of its hull have hardly been knocked out of shape, let alone broken up by the nearly 13,000-kilometre voyage. "That's why just about every plastic bottle that has been made still exists," de Rothschild says.

The voyage has been overshadowed by the more graphic pollution of the BP oil spill, but even that is dwarfed by the scale of the problem the Plastiki highlights. While the deaths of seabirds and marine life in the Gulf of Mexico are still being measured in the hundreds, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), plastic debris causes the deaths of more than a million seabirds every year, and more than 100,000 marine mammals. Back in 2006, the UN concluded that every square mile (2.59 square kilometres) of ocean contains 46,000 pieces of floating plastic. Since then the problem has only grown.

"One of the difficulties in conveying it to people," de Rothschild says, "is that you can't photograph it; the flecks are too small. What perhaps makes it most relevant and real for individuals is the health aspect of it. These particles are ingested by marine life and pass into our food chain. We all do it: we throw this stuff, this packaging, what I call “dumb plastic”, into the bin, and we think it has gone. But it comes back to us one way or another. Some of it ends up on our dinner plates."

The voyage was inspired by Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific journey on the raft Kon-Tiki in 1947. Olav Heyerdahl, the Norwegian explorer's grandson, has been aboard for part of the Plastiki adventure. The comparison between the two voyages illustrates other aspects of the ocean's fragility, de Rothschild believes.

"When you watch the film of Kon-Tiki and read Heyerdahl's account, you are struck by how alive the ocean seemed then," he says. "They were literally having to throw fish off the raft." That has not been the Plastiki experience at all. "For us it has been much more, where is everybody? We have seen a couple of dolphins, a couple of distant whales, a few flying fish, [but] other than that, nothing." Heyerdahl could survive on fish, but on board the Plastiki they have caught only a couple of tuna in three months, despite having their lines in the water every day. "When you start reading about 80% of the world's fish stocks being gone, it's hard to believe," de Rothschild says. "But then you come out here."

Even in the middle of the world's largest ocean it is hard to avoid some of the habits that have created the problem. At Christmas Island, where much of the food arrives in American packaging, "popsicle bags are a scourge". On Samoa, villages compete over recycling plans, but as soon as villagers were out of their backyard, de Rothschild watched young and old throwing plastic bottles into the sea.

One of the more gratifying aspects of the voyage has been the way that the message seems to have been communicated. Plastiki has a vivid ship-to-shore blog – "talking about the ocean from the ocean" – and there has been excitement wherever they have docked. In New Caledonia, de Rothschild says, perhaps three-quarters of the people who have seen the boat in the harbour said they had read about it and supported the project. That didn't stop him witnessing one "supporter" subsequently chucking bags full of rubbish over the side of his boat. "None of us likes the idea of fouling our own nest," he says. "But we are not good at thinking of the whole world as our nest."


About 12,500 reclaimed plastic bottles keep the vessel afloat. 
Photo courtesy of the 
Plastiki team/Luca Babini.

The Plastiki team does not do pessimism, though sometimes de Rothschild admits he feels like he is banging his head against a brick wall. Their own on-board efforts at self-sufficiency have gone well -- composting waste, powering batteries with a mixture of solar panels and bicycle-powered turbines. Even so, he is confronted by the fact that, however good your intentions, it is hard to live a life without plastic. When we spoke, de Rothschild had just done the shopping for the Sydney leg of the voyage. In the supermarket all the vegetables and all the salad were wrapped in plastic.

"It's like a disease," he says. "But we have to believe the argument can be won. Getting rid of “dumb plastic” -- bags in particular -- could be a very simple piece of legislation; making supermarkets use reusables is not so hard."

The crew's website is full of stories of people "doing their own Plastiki", pledging to eliminate plastic bottles from their school or workplace, or creating a zero-waste policy. De Rothschild hopes the voyage can be a metaphor for this. "We are just a bunch of citizens. We are not scientists or marine biologists, but we want to show that if we work together we can do something."

That sense of teamwork has no doubt been tested on board the catamaran. I saw the Plastiki in San Francisco before it set off, and was struck by how limited the space – a tiny geodesic dome of a cabin – was, not least for the 1.9-metre de Rothschild. How have they coped?

"Usually you are so exhausted by the end of the day that you could sleep anywhere," he says. "It's a really odd contrast; you are on this tiny platform and yet you have this enormous space around you. It becomes a little dance, in a way: you are fantastically aware of the other people, how they move. But we have a rule that if you say ‘you are annoying me’ -- which we all do -- then it has to be done in a spirit of jest."

Sydney is not so far away, but he is trying not to look too far ahead. "It will be a chapter over," he says. "But we are only just beginning to get this message across. The boat will go around the world, I hope, as a symbol of that. I feel, in every sense, that we are in the calm before the storm."


www.guardian.co.uk/

Copyright © Guardian News and Media Limited 2010

Homepage photo courtesy of the Plastiki team shows David de Rothschild aboard the catamaran in the Pacific Ocean
 

Now more than ever…

chinadialogue is at the heart of the battle for truth on climate change and its challenges at this critical time.

Our readers are valued by us and now, for the first time, we are asking for your support to help maintain the rigorous, honest reporting and analysis on climate change that you value in a 'post-truth' era.

Support chinadialogue

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

关于塑料包装的想法

住在英国几年了,我仍旧不适应英国的过度包装的现象。例如,单根黄瓜被包裹在塑料里出售。我真得希望能说服那些大商家减少塑料包装或用再生纸来代替塑料。无论怎样,减少包装意味着减少成本,于消费者和商家都有利。

A Little Thought On Plastic Packaging

Having lived in England for years, I am still not used to the over-packaging issue here. For example, single cucumber is wrapped up in plastics. I really hope that big businesses can be persuaded to reduce unnecessary plastic packaging or replace plastic by recycled-paper. Anyway, reducing packaging means reducing cost, which is beneficial to both consumers and businessmen.

HHL

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

永远的塑料垃圾

普拉斯提基号的航行, 以及它是由再生塑料瓶支撑漂浮的事实,宣示了塑料的耐用性和创造潜力。

过度的塑料包装——从计算机到黄瓜——是被补贴的廉价石油的后果。石油是生产塑料必需原料,低廉的油价成就了低廉的人造塑料价格。如果石油价格将外部成本(运输成本,环保费用,税金等)包括在内,我们就能够打击世界范围内的塑料滥用。

可再生材料应该得到补贴,有机或蔬菜为原料的包装应该享受税收优惠。食品包装和餐具可以使用蔬菜材料制成,然而这些产品的价格比塑料要高上数倍。

我们需要改变现状。鼓励替代生产方式,停止过度消费,停止生产塑料制品。要记住,塑料会永远留在环境中。让我们想想未来吧。

Plastic is Forever

The voyage of the Plastiki, and the fact that it is afloat by recycled plastic bottles highlight to the durability and creative potentials for plastic.

Excessive plastic packaging ranging computer packaging to cucumbers is a result of cheap subsidized oil. Petroleum is necessary to produce plastic, cheap oil prices allow for artificially cheap plastic prices. If the price of oil included externalities ( transportation cost, environmental fees, taxes etc) we could combat exorbitant use of plastics throughout the world.

Recycled materials need to be subsidized and tax incentives need to be granted to organic or vegetable based packaging. Food packing and utensils can be made from vegetable materials yet the price of these products is exponentially higher than their plastic counterparts.

The scales need to shift to embrace alternative means of production and cease the over-consumption and production of plastic products. Remember plastics remain in the environment forever, lets think about the future.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

痛心的垃圾

看着那些白色的垃圾,真是让人心痛.人类为了生活方便,为了经济发展,就牺牲了我们赖以生存的家园.等到我们后悔去补救时只怕是为时已晚了.现在虽然在提倡环保,但是只有少数人在行动,真希望加入到这个队伍的人是所有的人.

Tragic Waste

Looking at this plastic waste, it’s really tragic. Mankind is sacrificing the land in which we live for a convenient lifestyle and economic development. By the time we remedy the situation, I’m afraid it will be too late. Now, even though we promote environmental protection, only a small number of people take action. I wish everyone would join these people.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

从自己做起减少塑料袋使用

过度包装现象其实在国内也已经相当普遍。在超市里面,单独包装的黄瓜,塑料盒装的两个西红柿,等等在中国大小城市随处可见。即使在菜市场,也到处是廉价的塑料袋

中国前年发布了禁塑令。规定在超市不得使用不符合标准的塑料袋,并不得提供免费塑料袋。这在一定程度减少了超市塑料袋使用。而且,在禁令实行的最初几天也减少了塑料袋在其它区域出现的频率。但很快又恢复了原状。

塑料袋是给了我们方便,完全不用肯定很难办到。但,在能不用的时候尽量不用,每天少用一个塑料袋,这是完全可以办到的。

从少用一个开始。减少塑料袋和其他塑料制品,以及一次性用品的使用。

另外,公众宣传和适当的经济手段应该双管齐下。

Using less plastic bags, starts with you

In fact, it is rather common to see heavily packaged products in our country. Cucumbers are individually packed and two tomatoes in a plastic box etc. can be seen everywhere in Chinese cities big and small. Even in the vegetable markets, cheap plastic bags are all over.

China announced a plastic ban 2 years ago, stipulating that supermarkets must not use plastic bags that do not comply with the standards and must not give out free plastic bags. It has reduced the use of plastic bags to some degree. During the first few days of the ban, the frequency of plastics bag usage in other areas also decreased, but it soon returned to normal.

Plastic bags make life easier for us, it is hard to not use any. However, when we don't need to use them, we should try not to and use less of them everyday, which is definitely something we are all capable of doing.

Start with using one less; use fewer plastic bags or other plastic products, as well as disposable items.

Additionally, mass publicity and appropriate economic methods should be carried out alongside.

(Translated by Jieping Hu.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

大卫·德·罗斯柴尔德在伦敦

大卫·德·罗斯柴尔德将于10月13日在伦敦就此问题进行演讲,详情请参考如下网站--
http://www.21stcenturychallenges.org/focus/meet-our-panel3/

David de Rothschild in London

David de Rothschild is speaking about this issue in London on 13 October
http://www.21stcenturychallenges.org/focus/meet-our-panel3/