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“Land-grabbing” in Africa (1)

In what may be the greatest change of ownership since the colonial era, rich countries are farming land on the continent for their own citizens while some Africans may go hungry, John Vidal reports.

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We turned off the main road to Awassa, talked our way past security guards and drove nearly two kilometres across empty land before we found what will soon be Ethiopia’s largest greenhouse. Nestling below an escarpment of the Rift Valley, the development is far from finished, but the plastic and steel structure already stretches over 20 hectares – the size of 20 football pitches.

The farm manager shows us millions of tomatoes, peppers and other vegetables being grown in 500-metre rows in computer-controlled conditions. Spanish engineers are building the steel structure, Dutch technology minimises water use from two bore-holes and 1,000 women pick and pack 50 tonnes of food a day. Within 24 hours, it has been driven 320 kilometres to Addis Ababa and flown 1,600 kilometres to the shops and restaurants of Dubai, Jeddah and elsewhere in the Middle East.

Ethiopia is one of the hungriest countries in the world, with more than 13 million people needing food aid, but paradoxically the government is offering at least three million hectares of its most fertile land to rich countries and some of the world’s most wealthy individuals to export food for their own populations.

The 1,000 hectares of land that contain the Awassa greenhouses are leased for 99 years to a Saudi billionaire businessman, Ethiopian-born Sheikh Mohammed al-Amoudi, one of the 50 richest men in the world. His Saudi Star company plans to spend up to US$2 billion acquiring and developing 500,000 hectares of land in Ethiopia in the next few years. So far, it has bought four farms and is already growing wheat, rice, vegetables and flowers for the Saudi market. It expects eventually to employ more than 10,000 people.

But Ethiopia is only one of 20 or more African countries where land is being bought or leased for intensive agriculture on an immense scale in what may be the greatest change of ownership since the colonial era.

An Observer investigation estimates that up to 50 million hectares of land – an area more than double the size of the United Kingdom – has been acquired in the last few years or is in the process of being negotiated by governments and wealthy investors working with state subsidies. The data used was collected by Grain, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), the International Land Coalition (ILC), ActionAid and other non-governmental groups.

The land rush, which is still accelerating, has been triggered by the worldwide food shortages that followed the sharp oil-price rises in 2008, growing water shortages and the European Union’s insistence that 10% of all transport fuel must come from plant-based biofuels by 2015.

In many areas the deals have led to evictions, civil unrest and complaints of “land grabbing”.

The experience of Nyikaw Ochalla, an indigenous Anuak from the Gambella region of Ethiopia now living in Britain but who is in regular contact with farmers in his region, is typical. He said: “All of the land in the Gambella region is utilised. Each community has and looks after its own territory and the rivers and farmlands within it. It is a myth propagated by the government and investors to say that there is waste land or land that is not utilised in Gambella.

“The foreign companies are arriving in large numbers, depriving people of land they have used for centuries. There is no consultation with the indigenous population. The deals are done secretly. The only thing the local people see is people coming with lots of tractors to invade their lands.

“All the land round my family village of Illia has been taken over and is being cleared. People now have to work for an Indian company. Their land has been compulsorily taken and they have been given no compensation. People cannot believe what is happening. Thousands of people will be affected and people will go hungry.”

It is not known if the acquisitions will improve or worsen food security in Africa, or if they will stimulate separatist conflicts, but a major new World Bank report is expected to warn of both the potential benefits and the immense dangers they represent to people and nature.

Leading the rush are international agribusinesses, investment banks, hedge funds, commodity traders, sovereign wealth funds as well as UK pension funds, foundations and individuals attracted by some of the world’s cheapest land.

Together they are scouring Sudan, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Congo, Zambia, Uganda, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Mali, Sierra Leone, Ghana and elsewhere. Ethiopia alone has approved 815 foreign-financed agricultural projects since 2007. Any land there, which investors have not been able to buy, is being leased for approximately US$1 per year per hectare.

Saudi Arabia, along with Middle Eastern emirate states such as Qatar, Kuwait and Abu Dhabi, is thought to be the biggest buyer. In 2008 the Saudi government, which was one of the Middle East’s largest wheat-growers, announced it was to reduce its domestic cereal production by 12% a year to conserve its water. It earmarked US$5 billion to provide loans at preferential rates to Saudi companies that wanted to invest in countries with strong agricultural potential.

Meanwhile, the Saudi investment company Foras, backed by the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) and wealthy Saudi investors, plans to spend US$1 billion buying land and growing seven million tonnes of rice for the Saudi market within seven years. The company says it is investigating buying land in Mali, Senegal, Sudan and Uganda. By turning to Africa to grow its staple crops, Saudi Arabia is not just acquiring Africa’s land but is securing itself the equivalent of hundreds of millions of litres of scarce water a year. Water, says the United Nations, will be the defining resource of the next 100 years.

Since 2008 Saudi investors have bought heavily in Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia and Kenya. Last year the first sacks of wheat grown in Ethiopia for the Saudi market were presented by al-Amoudi to King Abdullah.

Some of the African deals lined up are eye-wateringly – enormously -- large: China has signed a contract with the Democratic Republic of Congo to grow 2.8 million hectares of palm oil for biofuels. Before it fell apart after riots, a proposed 1.2-million-hectare deal between Madagascar and the South Korean company Daewoo would have included nearly half of the country’s arable land.

Land to grow biofuel crops is also in demand. “European biofuel companies have acquired or requested about 3.9 million hectares in Africa. This has led to displacement of people, lack of consultation and compensation, broken promises about wages and job opportunities,” said Tim Rice, author of an ActionAid report that estimates that the European Union needs to grow crops on 17.5 million hectares, well over half the size of Italy, if it is to meet its 10% biofuel target by 2015.

“The biofuel land grab in Africa is already displacing farmers and food production. The number of people going hungry will increase,” he said. British firms have secured tracts of land in Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Nigeria and Tanzania to grow flowers and vegetables.

Indian companies, backed by government loans, have bought or leased hundreds of thousands of hectares in Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal and Mozambique, where they are growing rice, sugar cane, maize and lentils to feed their domestic market.


NEXT: “Nowhere is out of bounds”


www.guardian.co.uk/

Copyright Guardian News & Media Limited 2010

Homepage image from Catholic Relief Services
 

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

停下

我难以相信,富国如此分割撕裂他们的非洲母亲,这一点也不酷。总得有人像记者约翰·维达尔一样,做一些事告诉世界事实是什么样的。
总该有一些人或方法,来阻止“在非洲或任何其他土地上的掠夺”。

STOP THIS

I don't believe this, RICH countries tearing apart mother AFRICA LIKE THAT, IT IS NOT COOL. Somebody has to do something like this reporter John Vidal giving the world the TRUTH.
There has to be someone or someway who could stop "THIS Land Grabbing" IN Africa or any other.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

谎言与棕榈油

中国与刚果共和国之间的“交易”跟前比利时国王利奥波德决定在刚果种植橡胶的政策一样可耻。

利奥波德是真的想培育橡胶, 而中国却只是想借此以较低成本来利用森林,建棕榈油种植场只是个幌子。

Lies, lies and palm oil

The "deal" between China and the DR Congo is almost as scandalous as the policy of Leopold - a notorious former king of Belgium - of growing rubber in the DRC a couple of centuries ago.

However, Leopold really wanted to cultivate rubber. China just wants cheap access to the forest - there is no serious intention of growing palm oil plantations.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

谢谢

在中外对话,我总能找到那些关于人性本真的东西,仔细洞察世界肌理,为我们呈现真实的世界,提醒我们更关注需要关注的地方,谢谢《中外对话》。

Thanks

I can always find this kind of stuff about the reality of human nature on China Dialogue, giving detailed insight into the wrinkles of the world, showing us the real world and reminding us to pay more attention where it is most needed. Thank you, China Dialogue.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

掠夺

包括中国在内的世界列强对非洲土地资源的廉价变相掠夺,导致农民流离失所,造成社会动乱,人们对这种“攫取土地”的行为抱怨不断。

Plundering

The prices paid by world powers, including China, for African land are so low as to amount to thinly- disguised plundering. This is leading to the displacement and disposession of farmers, and creating social turbulence; people are complaining continually about this kind of "land grab".

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

深思

欧洲的殖民潮,导致了美洲新大陆上印第安人的灾难,也导致了亚洲的灾难:中国也曾经是被列强瓜分的殖民地;现在美洲和亚洲,又开始向非洲殖民了。地球人都是生物人,都要吃饭。但是,凭什么一个人口过多国家的人,可以占有其他国家人的生存资源呢?

A Thought

The wave of European colonialism led to disaster for the Native Americans of the newly- discovered American mainland, and also to disaster for Asia: China was also once pulled apart by colonial powers; now America and Asia have started to colonise Africa. People are the same the world over; we all have to eat. However, what right does a country with an excessive population have to occupy land containing resources needed for the subsistance of the citizens of another country?

(Translator: Ruaridhi Bannatyne)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

为什么指责中国

文中提到的国家不止中国,而且西方国家对非洲国家的掠夺由来已久。中国与非洲国家的合作被西方媒体解读成“新殖民主义”,但方式总是比西方早期殖民地文明得多吧。何况,从大多数中国人民自身心理而言,还是希望能和非洲人民互帮互助,互利共赢。我们不是以殖民者的身份去开拓非洲大陆的,我们也不希望他们挨饿。要怪也只能怪万恶的资本主义,他们才是惟利是图的罪恶的源泉。

Why do people accuse China?

The countries mentioned in the article do not refer to China alone, and the western countries have a long history in plundering the African countries. Although the cooperation of China and the African countries is interpreted by the western media as “new colonialism”, its way is much more civilized than that in the westerners’ early colonization. And to say nothing that in most Chinese people’s hearts, they hope to help each other and have a mutually-benefiting and win-win relation with the Africans. We do not exploit the continent of Africa as a colonizer, and we do not want them to suffer from hunger. If there is anyone to blame, it must be the evil capitalism which is the source of the devil mercenary.
(Translated by Jieping Hu.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国

这也是为什么西方把中国称为新殖民者的部分原因,尽管有例子表明中国在非洲的确是在帮助当地农民管理土地的。

China

This is also part of the reason the west termed China the new colonist, although there are cases that indicate that the Chinese presence in Africa is actually aimed at helping local farmers with land management.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

评论6

但是大部分在非洲的中国工人要么向别人借钱让自己过好日子(即资本家)要么被雇主转移(即雇佣兵)。

难道大部分中国移民进行的工作(以及他们经营的当地贸易)与非洲人能进行的工作有什么不同吗?

难道过去几年那些通过莱索托进入南非的人不是从福州来的非法移民吗?

Comment 6

But most of the Chinese workers in Africa have either borrowed money in order to find a better life (i.e. capitalist) or been transferred by employers (i.e. mercenary).

Are not most of the jobs carried out by the Chinese emigrants (and the local businesses that they operate) the same as could be carried out by Africans?

Are not many of those who have entered South Africa via Lesotho during the last few years illegal immigrants from Fuzhou?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

评论8:这有什么不对吗

如果你非要说这事“新殖民主义”我也没有办法,因为对于殖民化过程你比我要清楚得多。我也没有必要和你争论发达国家的殖民入侵行为有多么罪恶,指责西方国家也不过是“以五十步笑百步”。
我知道非洲国家的人民也许不欢迎来自福州的移民,福州人移民到非洲也不一定高兴,但是两方政府却是“一人愿打一人愿挨”。你知道欧洲国家开拓殖民地也是国内的需求对不对?或者是皇帝的需求?

Comment 8: What is the problem?

If you insist that this is "new colonialism", there's nothing I could say, because you are more clear about the process of colonization. It is also not necessary to argue about how evil the colonial intrusion of the developed countries is. Accusing Western countries is just a case of the pot calling the kettle black.
I know that people in African countries may not welcome immigrants from Fuzhou, and immigrants from Fuzhou may not be happy living in Africa. But for both governments it is a fair exchange. You know that European countries' colonial expansion is due to their domestic demand, right? Or to the emperor's needs?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论5

人口不过多的国家,也可以占有其他国家人的生存资源不是更荒唐么?

Reply to Comment 5

Is it not more absurd of a country with small population,to occupy land containing resources needed for the subsistence of the citizens of another country?