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No shared vision on climate change

Governments have failed to understand the importance of a regional consensus to address global warming in the Himalayas, argues Rina Saeed Khan.

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Everest Base Camp is undergoing dramatic changes. “Usually in April the springs around the camp are frozen. Last year, we reached the camp in late April and found them gushing,” said Shailee Basnet, a young journalist from Nepal who climbed Everest in 2008.

I met her at a regional climate change conference held in Kathmandu at the beginning of this month. Further up the mountain, Shailee told me that the signs of climate change were even more evident — the Khumbu ice wall was moving, with ice towers falling and cracking. “The ice wall is supposed to be stable at this time of the year — it has become very difficult for climbers now”.

Basnet’s anecdotal evidence is echoed by other climbers who visit these high mountains regularly. Some of them were at the conference hosted by the government of Nepal with funding from international organisations. Held at a local hotel, the conference brought together scientists, policymakers, donor agencies, journalists and various NGOs working in the Himalayan region.

The NGOs reported on the villagers’ observations of receding glaciers, apricots blooming much earlier and mosquitoes infesting higher altitudes. Clearly something is happening in the mountains of the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Hindu Kush, although scientific data to explain these changes is patchy and there are many blank spots.

According to a statement released by the World Bank, “Where detailed studies have been carried out, the range of glacier dynamics are so complex that it’s virtually impossible to generalise and dangerous to fix on one figure or another”. What is needed is science-based research involving the local people who have considerable local knowledge.

This mountainous area, given the general title of the “Hindu Kush-Himalayan region” (HKH) by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) includes the Tibetan plateau, where melting permafrost is causing houses to collapse. According to some scientists, “The rates of warming in the HKH region are significantly higher than the global average.” They say that “all aspects of human and natural life will be affected”.

Villagers in this mountain region also rely heavily on the monsoon systems and these may be altered by climate change. Already, the monsoons have arrived late in Nepal, India and Pakistan this year, causing crops to fail. In this context, the idea behind the climate-change conference in Kathmandu was to bring together all the countries in the HKH region to come up with “a vision for addressing climate change risks and vulnerabilities in the Himalayas”.

Unfortunately, the conference was far from successful in coming up with a shared vision. Ministers from the regional countries were expected to come, but that did not happen.

Countries with no direct links with the Himalayas, but who will suffer from sea-level rise caused by glacial melt like the Maldives, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh (which will also suffer from flooding rivers) showed up in full force. However, China declined to participate, Bhutan did not even bother showing up and Pakistan sent a low-level delegation, including a section officer from the ministry of environment.

The Indian team, which at least included high-level secretaries, apparently dissented on announcing a “Kathmandu Declaration” at the end of the conference. A seasoned Nepali journalist attending the conference asked the Nepali minister reading the statement in Nepalese why there was no declaration. The journalist told me later, “He really had no answer to give aside from the fact that it was an ‘agreed statement’. It was not even a signed statement so I asked him could you at least sign it so I can quote you in my report.”

The rather general statement highlighted the fact that “South Asia including the HKH region is a climate-change hotspot that influences the lives of half of the world’s population”. The statement also called for the generation and sharing of data on the region and adaptation at all levels through collaborative efforts. Since water resources are particularly impacted, the statement called for basin-wide approaches at appropriate levels. It asked the industrialised countries to pay for adaptation and clean technologies.

The statement skirted around the issue of local pollution and regional carbon emissions — which is disturbing because scientists are pointing out that an “atmospheric brown cloud” is depositing black carbon and aerosols from industries onto the high mountains, adding to temperature rise.

Black carbon is produced by diesel engines, coal-powered power plants, forest fires and wood- and dung-burning stoves. According to the director-general of ICIMOD, “We know that black carbon and aerosols are having a dramatic impact but again there is no research as yet.”

With settlements increasing in the mountains themselves, not to mention the rapidly sprawling cities of Asia, this is a growing problem. Although it is short-lived, black carbon is extremely polluting and regional countries need to address this kind of emission. However, with China opening up one new coal plant every week and India opening up a number of thermal power plants, I guess this is not something that the two regional leaders want to address at the moment given their high economic growth rates.

Those from international organisations tried to put a positive spin on the conference by announcing increased funding and more programmes on climate resilience. According to Claudia Sadoff of the World Bank, “We know that there are scientific data gaps and that we need to tailor interventions to micro-climates … but let’s try for the 10% solutions”. Some solutions are certainly better than no solutions — but I wish the participating countries had realised that if they can’t get together and build a regional consensus on climate change, they can’t expect to come up with a global consensus in Copenhagen.


Rina Saeed Khan is a Lahore-based freelance journalist, with an MSc in Environment and Development from the London School of Oriental and African Studies.

This article first appeared in DAWN. It is translated and reproduced here with permission.

Homepage image of Everest Base Camp in Nepal by Mahatma4711

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

挑剔一下

原文引用:据国际山地综合发展中心主任介绍,“我们知道黑炭及浮尘会产生巨大的影响,但是,目前还没有关于这一问题的研究。”
我认为,此类引文今后绝对不要再出现在正式的学术出版物中。是的,我们都知道并且都担忧黑炭及浮尘,或CO2对环境的巨大影响,但是承认没有相关的研究显然是自相矛盾的表述,而且是论据的瑕疵。
(王蕾译)

nitpicking

Quote: According to the director-general of ICIMOD, “We know that black carbon and aerosols are having a dramatic impact but again there is no research as yet.” unquote

Quotes like this should never ever appear on serious academic publications, me thinks. Yes, we all know and fear that black carbon and aerosols, or CO2 in general, have the famous impact. But by admitting that no research has been done is obviously a self-denying statement that compromises your argument.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

惊诧于中国为什么不参加

喜马拉雅山可是我们淡水的主要来源啊,为什么这么重要的地区乃至将会有国际影响的会议,咱们也不派个人听听?是没有钱嘛?

Astonished at China’s absence

Come on, Himalayan is the main source of our fresh water, why no one was sent to join that important regional, or even international-influenced, meeting? Because no money?

(translated by Fangfang CHEN)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国应该参加

9月初的这个会议的名称应该是“南亚地区气候变化会议”吧,会议的主题是“应对气候变化给喜马拉雅地区带来的挑战”。
我赞成3号的说法,喜马拉雅地区对周边的国家有着重要的意义。但是,中、印、巴等地区大国却要么缺席会议,要么敷衍了事,显然是没有认真重视这一地区的战略地位。

Chin must participate

This conference at the beginning of september, should have called ¨South Asian Area Climate Change Conference¨. the subject should be¨the challenges which the climate change bring about in the himalayan area¨. I agree with the No.3´s comment that Himalaya area is so important to the surrounding countries. But China, India and Pakistan are either absent or take it casually. Obviously, they don´t really attach importance to the strategic status of this area. translated by tingting

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

更多当地人的声音

应该尽量多地把喜马拉雅地区的人们把自己对气候变化的感受表达出来,让更多的人听到,提高对这一问题的重视。
举个例子,说到气候变化对南亚季风的影响,可以描述一下季风到来时间的推迟、风力大小、降水量的增减等种种变化,对当地的农民、商人、手工业者这些各行各业人们生活的巨大影响。我觉得,这些生活化的描述要比那些研究人员的数据更打动大众,因为人们平时听到的数据实在是太多了。

It needs more voices come from the natives

To get more supporters, it is necessary to try to let more and more people know by clearly and definitely expressing the natives’ feeling towards climate change in the Himalayas.For example,when it come to the influence of climate change over the southern Asia monsoon, not only all the changes could be described,such as the amount of time by which the monsoon retarded, the force of the wind and the increase or decrease in the quantity of precipitation,but also the great impact on local farmers,traders, handicraftsmen,and other people in a variety of proffessions. Comparing with the data of the researchers which are too much publicity,I think, the information relevant to life can be persuasive.
(Translated by Lei Wang)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

降温是硬道理

解决气候变化焦点---降温是硬道理!不具降温的任何学说都是自欺欺人!······

只有【地球新工程】可从根本解决全球气候变暖问题!---无需碳排放协议!只需少量资金!只要各国齐心协力!让地球降温指日可待!······

民间气候研究者

'Cooling Down' is an inescapable truth

The focus of resolving climate change --- ‘cooling down’ is an inescapable truth! Any theory of ‘cooling down’ proves itself to be insufficient and deceiving! … Only ‘New Global Projects’ can fundamentally resolve the issue of global warming!
… We don’t need an agreement regarding carbon emissions! We just need a small amount of funding! As long as every country works together we can succeed! Make the‘cooling down’ of the planet happen sooner! … A non-governmental climate researcher. (This comment was translated by Laura Bewley)