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Climate on the couch (1)

Western culture lives in fear of wild nature, both external and internal, writes ecotherapist Mary-Jayne Rust. How can we find a way of working with nature in this consumerist age?

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[This article is adapted from a 2008 article in Psychotherapy and Politics International, which was a revised version of a 2007 lecture presented by the author to the Guild of Psychotherapists (UK). It is published here with the author’s permission.]

We find ourselves in a global crisis, and there is no doubt that something has gone seriously awry with our relationship to our environment. We witness nothing less than an assault on our life-support systems by humans in industrial-growth society.

Over the past two years, there has been a massive shift in awareness about this crisis. We hear daily diagnoses on the state of the planet from our scientists, like doctors reading the body of the earth -- our collective body. Our temperature is set to rise by 2° Celsius, at least, in the coming years; our ice caps are predicted to melt within 35 years, our glaciers sooner. Our sea levels are rising as a result, our weather patterns are changing unpredictably -- and that’s just a small fraction of our physical symptoms.

There is nowhere to escape, and there is no guarantee that humans – and many other species – will survive. We are confronted by the fact that our earth has limits and we cannot continue to consume with no concern for the health of the whole ecosystem.

The changes to our ecosystems may come sooner than we predict. We are told we have a small window of time within which to act -- 10 years at most; after that, things will take their own course and we will just have to adapt to the changes as best we can.

Those are the physical symptoms. What of our psychological state? Ecopsychologist Hilary Prentice writes: “Is the human species suicidal? Apparently so – engaging in behaviour that is destructive to everything on which it depends, but apparently in serious denial of this. … Unresolved dependency needs? Absolutely! We act as though we are not totally dependent on these others, as though can afford to abuse everything … of which our world is made …We seem to have an overweening narcissism, such that all other species and elements of the world appear to be there to please and gratify our every whim …”

The roots of our crisis go back such a long way, through the history of our western culture. I can only hope to pull out a few strands of the stories we live by today. …

The first is the words of a Native American, Jeannette Armstrong of the Okanagan tribe, who describes the human self as inextricably interwoven with the web of life:

“We survive within our skin inside the rest of our vast selves. … Okanagans teach that our flesh, blood and bones, are Earth-body; in all cycles in which the earth moves, so does our body … Our word for body literally means “the land-dreaming capacity”... The Okanagan teaches that emotion or feeling is the capacity whereby community and land intersect in our beings and become part of us. This bond or link is a priority for our individual wholeness or well-being.”

This second quote is the words of the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, which tells us something about our western perspective:

“The principle task of civilisation, its actual raison d’etre, is to defend us against nature. We all know that in many ways civilisation does this fairly well already, and clearly as time goes on it will do it much better. But no one is under the illusion that nature has already been vanquished; and few dare hope that she will ever be entirely subjected to man. There are the elements which seem to mock at all human control; the earth which quakes and is torn apart and buries all human life and its works; water, which deluges and drowns everything in turmoil; storms, which blow everything before them. ... With these forces nature rises up against us, majestic, cruel and inexorable; she brings to our mind once more our weakness and helplessness, which we thought to escape through the work of civilisation.”

Freud describes how we have battled against nature to build western civilisation. This attitude is familiar to us all from our education; our history is portrayed as an epic, heroic journey from a primitive dark world of ignorance to a brighter world of ever-increasing knowledge, freedom and well-being. This progress was made possible by the birth of human reason and the modern mind; it’s all about onwards and upwards. Some people call this our “myth of progress”.

What we were not taught at school is the shadow of that myth. Jeannette Armstrong’s quote is just one illustration of the thinking of many indigenous societies that lived for thousands of years, in a richly sophisticated communion of community, land, culture and spirit. Freud reminds us of our very different western cultural perspective: that, in an effort to escape our vulnerability, we gradually learned how to manipulate the world around us. This has led to the desire to dominate nature and consequently the creation of a hierarchy of life. At the top sits white, western, male, middle-class, urban, “civilised” life and its values.

From this vantage point, nature – both nature “out there” as well as our own human nature -- is seen as wild, brutal and out of control. Certain groups of humans are branded as being closer to the earth, seen as having a “lower”, more animal nature, and for some this justifies their domination and abuse. The genocide of indigenous cultures, African slavery and the oppression of women are three examples of this.

The end result of our myth of progress is that we see ourselves as separate from, and superior to, the rest of life. We treat those supposedly “underneath” as resources to use as we please – land, creatures, as well as peoples. This is a form of oppression which the deep ecologist John Seed describes as anthropocentrism. He writes: “Anthropocentrism means human chauvinism. Similar to sexism, but substitute ‘human race’ for ‘man’ and ‘all other species’ for ‘woman.’ ”

Some writers suggest that this shadow side of the myth of progress is reflected in the “myth of the fall”. The biblical story of how Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden can be read as a description of our separation from nature. But the traditional interpretation leaves us with unending guilt for this original sin of eating from the tree of knowledge and separating from nature. We are told we must atone for our flawed nature and that there is no way back to the garden.

When we remind ourselves of the kind of climate that we have all grown up in, for thousands of years, it is little wonder that we find ourselves in such turbulence. This is the climate that needs putting on the psychotherapist’s couch today.

I think we would all agree that our current popular reading of these two stories -- the myth of progress and the myth of the fall -- have run their course. At this critical point in human history we most urgently need a myth to live by which is about living with nature, rather than fighting it. We need to rethink where we have fallen, and what it means to progress. How can we progress to a life which benefits the whole earth community, not just wealthy humans?

Where we find ourselves, then, is between stories, in a transitional space, a place of great turbulence, with little to hold onto save the ground of our own experience. Our therapeutic task, you might say, in this space of transition is to understand how these myths still shape our internal worlds, our language and our defences against change, as well as to see our own part in the oppression of others. Through shedding light on these shadows we might ask how we find renewal: what does it mean to return to the garden?

For somewhere in the midst of “sustainability” – a rather uninspiring word -- lies an inspiring vision of transformation. But if this journey is simply a practical venture about behaviour change, it will not appeal to our imaginations. We need to dig deep, to re-read our own myths as well as find inspiration from the stories of others who are outside the box of western culture, and inside the web of life.

NEXT: Responding to the current crisis


Mary-Jayne Rust is a Jungian analyst and art therapist in Britain. She has been writing, lecturing and running workshops on the links between psychotherapy and environmental issues for many years.

[This article is adapted from a 2008 article in Psychotherapy and Politics International, which was a revised version of a 2007 lecture presented by the author to the Guild of Psychotherapists (UK). It is published here with the author’s permission.]

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

排他心理

同意作者的看法。人类中心主义、种族歧视、性别歧视、同性恋歧视,甚至过去对左撇子的歧视和排挤,本质上都是一样的,都是排斥异己。表面上这些占了优势的人们很强势很凶猛,实际上这只不过是为了掩饰他们的脆弱,那就是对和自己不同的人或生物的恐惧心理。在他们看来,不同群体之间永远是斗争关系,你强它就弱,你弱它就强。于是为了避免自己落在下风被欺压,他们就选择去欺凌他人。这种想法是不是被害妄想症的一种呢?如果不能摆脱这种狭隘愚蠢的心理,那么人类和自然之间以及人类内部的矛盾永远不会解决。

Exclusive mentality

I agree with the author. Human-centrism, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, discrimination on grounds of sexuality, even discrimination against left-handed people all have the same root cause -- exclusiveness. Those superior ones behave aggressively and ferociously, but in fact they are just trying to hide their weaknesses, a fear of alien groups or species. In their opinion, competition always exists between different groups, and that when one's power prevails, the other declines. Thus they take the initiative to humiliate others before being humiliated themselves. Isn't it exactly a kind of persecutory delusion? Conflicts between humans and nature and among mankind won't end unless we get rid of such a narrow and foolish mentality.
(diaoshuhuan)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

地球就像病人

我喜欢把地球比作人体的比喻。是的,地球现在就像一个病人,正在承受疾病的侵袭和折磨。地球和人体是一样的,可以承受一定程度的损害并进行自我修复,但绝非刀枪不入的不死之身。当这种损害过大时,人体会发生不可逆的器官衰竭甚至死亡,而地球也会元气大伤,甚至荒芜。所以人类,请不要再肆意妄为。

The Earth is a patient

I love it when people compare the earth to our body. Nowadays,it's true the earth is like a patient who is suffering the attack and torture
from disease. The earth is just like our body, which can endure damage to a certain extent
and gets self-rehabilitation, but isn't completely invulnerable. However, if the harm becomes excessive, our body will encounter an irreversible organ failure or even death, and to the earth, it will undergo a big loss in vitality or desolation.Thus, dear humanity, please don't take your own course anymore.

(Comment was translated by Mingzhu Yao)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

旧瓶装新酒

所谓精神疗法,按照文章中的意思,只不过是说,人类需要改变人类中心主义的伦理观念,这并没有什么新意,不同于人类中心论的观念已经很多,关键是如何让新的环境伦理观在实践中得以应用,而不是让新观念依旧躺在学术的殿堂中。

New wine in old bottles

According to author's opinion, psychotherapy is just to say that human beings should change the ethical concept of anthropocentrism. It is not a new perspective. There has a lot of views being different from anthropocentrism, however the key point is how to improve the new environmental Ethics in practice, rather than to have it being on the shelf of academic hall as of old.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

“伊甸园”的灾难 (1)

真是篇美妙又发人深省的文章!十分感谢!我希望中外对话的读者都能认真思索当前气候危机背后的因素。看到文中将“衰落神话”以及人类被驱逐出伊甸园视作我们与自然界的隔离,我注意到一个时下非常受关注的发展。在传说中圣经里的花园所在地(伊拉克南部),一场严重的干旱威胁着当地主要的生态特征——湿地。为了惩罚居住在那里并反抗萨达姆·侯塞因统治的什叶派阿拉伯人(Shia Arabs),萨达姆·侯塞因曾把那里的湿地放干。正当该湿地刚刚开始恢复时,这场干旱来临了。
据新闻报道,这片地区目前的状况又变成了“只比大片干裂的土地稍好一点”。没有渔业,家畜处于濒死状态,人们的生计也在走向绝望。而这就发生在中东最广阔的湿地当中,这就是那片被称为“在以农业为基础的文化的发展中起了重要作用,使文明达到了新的高度”的湿地,这就是那片“拥有数百种鸟类和鱼类”,“周期性的洪水创造了肥沃的耕作土壤”的湿地。(待续)

(由Renate翻译)

Trouble in "paradise" (1)

A fascinating and thought-provoking article! Thank you! I hope many chinadialogue readers will seriously ponder these underlying elements to the current climate crisis.
Regarding the "myth of the fall" and expulsion from Garden of Eden being read as a description of our separation from nature, I note a very topical development. In the traditional site of the biblical garden (in southern Iraq), a severe drought threatens the marshes that are a primary ecological feature there. The drought comes as the marshes were beginning to recover from being drained by Saddam Hussein -- to punish the Shia Arabs who lived there and opposed his rule.
According to news reports, the area is, again, "little more than vast expanses of cracked earth". There is no fishing, and livestock and livelihoods are dying.
This, in the most extensive wetlands in the Middle East. This in an area said to have played "an important role in the development of an agriculture-based culture that helped raise civilisation to new heights". This in an area that "boasted hundreds of species of birds and fish" and where "periodic flooding created fertile farm lands".
(more follows)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

“伊甸园”的灾难(2)

在这片脆弱的土地——古老的美索不达米亚平原上,底格里斯河和幼发拉底河所孕育的沼泽阿拉伯文化已经存在了5000多年。联合国正与其他国家再度紧急联手拯救这片土地。但是在这场严重的旱灾终止之前,状况不会得到全面改善。人类最大的敌人往往就是自己,我们破坏了大自然后将难以被宽恕,这是又一个惨痛的例子。
-- Matilda

本评论由Mingzhu Yao 翻译

Trouble in "paradise" (2)

In this fragile area -- ancient Mesopotamia -- Marsh Arab culture existed for over five millennia, nourished by the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
The United Nations and others are scrambling to rescue the area again. That won't work completely until there is a break in the severe drought.
But what a poignant symbol of how mankind is all too often its own worst enemy, and how unforgiving nature can be when we mess up.
-- Matilda