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From east to west, a chain collapses

Millions of people are losing their jobs as China, the world’s largest importer of waste, is hit by a collapse in the demand for recycled packaging. Tania Branigan reports.

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The scrap trader was immovable, despite Wu Wenxiu's pleas. She would pay one yuan -- roughly 15 US cents -- for a kilogram of plastic. Around the corner in Shi Yuhai's yard, the offer was no better. Wu shrugged his shoulders and began to heave bags from his tricycle on to the scales. "One kuai [yuan] here, one kuai there -- everywhere's the same these days. This industry has broken down," he grumbled.

Wu is one of 160,000 collectors in Beijing who make a living from the detritus of urban life: plastic sheeting, office printouts, bottles, radiators and scraps of cardboard. Recycling has become a global industry and China is the largest importer of the world's waste materials, taking in – for example -- as much as a third of Britain's recyclables. Then came the global economic slump, decimating the Chinese recycling industry and leaving Britain, the United States and other developed countries to grapple with growing volumes of recycled waste and nowhere to send it.

"It's a canary in the coalmine: it's the front and back end of industry," said Adam Minter, who runs the Shanghai Scrap blog and specialises in the metal trade. "Until about eight weeks ago, for example, the entire [US] west coast paper market was sent to China and most of it was sent south. It was processed and made into packaging for products that then shipped back to the US ... But when US consumer demand dropped off, that broke the cycle."

Across the scrap trade, prices have halved or worse in a matter of months. Each link in the chain is disintegrating, from factories to scrap yards to collectors such as Wu, 56, a former farmer who now plans to return to Hubei province.

Official media reported that four-fifths of China's recycling units had closed and that millions of people will eventually be left without employment. 

Dongxiaokou, on the outskirts of Beijing, is a village composed of scrap: blocks of crushed metal are stacked in a tower, heaps of plastic bottles glint in the sunshine and piles of newspapers and rags fill yards. But the merchants all have the same story: they have lost tens of thousands of dollars in a few months, wiping out years of hard work.

Shi puffed on a cigarette as he counted out notes for Wu. "I've been in this business for 15 years and it's been bad before, but never this severe. Everyone's lost a huge amount of money and some can't sell their stock," he said. "Usually we sell to factories and they recycle items into plastic chips. But the price of chips has dropped, so it's had a knock-on effect on us."

This area deals in domestic waste rather than imports, but Shi said every part of the industry had been affected. 

Beijing dealers have been particularly hard hit. They stockpiled large quantities of recyclables because prices were soaring, but as the market began to soften, the Olympics security clampdown prevented trucks from entering the capital. The merchants could only watch as the value of their holdings plummeted.

"In a good year, we can earn about 50,000 yuan [US$7,300] but this year we lost 200,000 [nearly US$300,000]," said Gong Rongchuan, 45, whose yard lies across the rutted alley from Shi's. "We came here more than 10 years ago and at the beginning we collected ourselves. Then we managed to start the business. We were too poor to get loans but we managed to borrow 100,000 to 200,000 from friends and relatives and we work from morning to night every day. But we haven't paid them all back because of our losses."

Minter says the predicament is typical of the trade. "People would borrow money from relatives and buy a container of scrap,” he said, “and then throw all that money back in and reinvest it. Great if it goes up -- but the moment it starts slipping, especially if it's slipping 20 to 30%, you're finished.”

Gong said: "Once we have sold all this stock, we'll leave. My son's sorting it because we can't afford workers any more. We haven't figured out what to do next. We have seven people in the family and only 2.5 to 3 mu [less than one-fifth of a hectare] of farmland. It's too many people and too little land, so even if we go home there's not much we can do. We have both old and young to support."

The effects can be felt across China. Most of Gong's customers were plastics recyclers in Wen'an, Hebei, where -- by one estimate -- 93% of income depends on the trade. Some are bankrupt already. Wen'an Dongdu Jiacheng Recycling Resources is clinging on. But Miss Han, a materials buyer, said all but three of the 26 production-line workers had been sent home for their new year holiday more than a month early.

There is no longer demand for plastic granules from nearby companies such as Hongkai Plastic Products, which made items such as bicycle handlebars. Its owner, Mr Zheng, has sent 20 workers home. "My factory was hit by the economic crisis -- it's been closed for two months already," he said in early January. "We usually sell our products to a dealer and most of his business is exports. He didn't give us any more orders."

At a factory down the road, the response to queries was more brusque. "We've already gone bust," said a man, and hung up.

 

Homepage photo by sheilaz413

www.guardian.co.uk

Copyright Guardian News and Media Limited 2009

 

 

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不用太悲观

拾荒者是循环经济最重要的组成部分之一,他们实现了从循环经济中废物到资源的转化,连接起了传统产业链的两头。在中国现在大力提倡循环经济的大环境下,他们的产业前景要比很多传统行业都明朗。经济危机对他们的确有很大影响,但这更多的是因为他们之前的需求太依赖于那些专做出口的外向型企业。他们面临的问题和外向型企业的问题一样,但作为原料提供商,只要通过适当的转向内需型行业,建立平衡的客户群,他们能比外向型企业更快更直接的受益于中国政府提振内需的经济刺激计划,恢复完整的产业链。别忘了,在这个行业工作的中国人都是i最能吃苦耐劳也最坚韧的一群人。因此,他们会比外向型企业中的工人更快的走出困境。

王韬

Don’t be too pessimistic

The scrap collectors are one of the most important components in the recycling economy. They realized the recycling economy by transforming rubbish into natural resources; they linked both ends of the industrial economy. In China, in the currently vigorously advocated environment of a recycling economy, their prospects must be much better than those in traditional industries. Economic crisis does have does have a tremendous influence on them, but this is because they used to rely too heavily on export-oriented enterprises. The problem they are confronted with and exported-oriented enterprises are one and the same. However, being a provider of raw materials, they only need to go through an appropriate change within the company, and create a balance in the groups of customers, and their enterprise will be able to profit more quickly and more directly from the economic stimulus created by the government. They will be able to complete the industrial chain again. Don’t forget, the Chinese that work in this business are the most hardworking and most able to endure hardships. For that reason, they are more able to overcome their difficulties than the export-oriented workers.
Wang Tao (Translated by Michelle Deeter)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

同意1号评论员

为什么废品企业在经济危机形势下会率先萧条。盖因在经济告诉增长的时候进口量也是相当的大。从废纸进口估计,造纸厂利用进口的废纸占总废纸量的60—-80%。塑料也大,估计在40%左右。凡是外向型企业受冲击的程度都比较大,废品回收企业也不例外,因为在这个产业中,废品经分敛后就成为原料。而那些极端的破产者,他们很可能是在繁荣期有囤积现象的,这也不足为奇。仿若铁矿,进口铁矿达到1600元以上,很有业内人士大肆囤积,结果在危机期得到重创。

Agree with comment 1

In an economic crisis why are waste companies first to go into a slump? The reason for this is when there was high speed economic growth, the volume of imports was fairly high. An estimate for waste paper is that 60 - 80% of the paper used by paper making factories is imported waste paper. The proportion for plastics is also large, estimated to be around 40%. The impact on all export-orientated enterprises has been comparatively large and waste paper recycling companies are no exception, because in this industry, the waste products become a raw material. It would not be at all surprising if some of those who have gone bankrupt had stockpiled during the prosperous times. It seems that way for iron ore; imported ore has reached over 1600 yuan and there are many people within the industry who recklessly stockpiled (iron ore) and as a result, in the time of crisis have suffered heavy losses.
(Translated by Jodie Gardiner)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

短暂的低谷

同意1号评论和2号评论。现在废品回收业确实不景气,塑料瓶1分钱一个都没有人要。不过从长远来讲,节约能源保护环境仍然是总的趋势,废品回收业不可或缺。现在的不景气应该只是短暂的低谷,等到金融危机过去,这个行业应该会很快恢复生机的。

A temporary downturn

I agree with Comment 1 & Comment 2. Now the industry of wastage recycle is really in a slump; you can’t even sell the plastics bottle at 1cent. However, energy-saving and protection of the environment is still the long term overall trend, and the waste recycling is a must-have industry. The current downturn should be a temporary situation; this industry will recover quickly after the financial crisis.

Translated by Fangfang CHEN

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

政府参与

回收废品需要政府的参与和规范管理,保护正规的回收企业,同时管理好“散兵游勇”,不让其只回收不治污,以更低的成本与正规回收企业竞争。废品回收存在很大的污染问题,而最大的风险是看不见的污染,如废品中的重金属和化学品。

Government participation

The participation and regulation of the government is necessary in the scrap trade. The government should protect legitimate recycling enterprises while administrate small-scale operators, stoping them from competing with formal enterprises at lower prices by doing recycle business without pollution treatment. There are serious pollution problems in the scrap trade, among which the biggest risk is invisible pollution such as heavy metals and chemicals in wastes.

(Translated by Xiaoyu Guan)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

这样的产业链断掉也罢

中国处于全球产业链的低端:在中国廉价生产,造成污染;然后废品垃圾又回到中国处理回收,造成再次污染。

这样的产业链断掉也罢。相对于污染带来的给人的伤害和长期经济成本,回收产业的利润和就业机会都无法弥补。一句话,应该把洋垃圾拒之国门之外。

It is all right if such a chain collapses

China is at the low end of global industry chain: it is the place where cheap manufacture causes pollution and where the wastes go back for recovery treatment which causes second pollution. Therefore, it is all right if such a chain collapses. The profits and employment opportunities of the recycle trade are nothing compared to the damage to people caused by pollution and long-term economic costs. In a word, we should get foreign wastes out of our door.

(Translated by Xiaoyu Guan)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

关于4楼

好像4楼有句话的英文和中文意思正好相反。

该评论已修改,多谢指出错误!

About comment no.4

It seems that one sentence in the English version of comment 4 is opposite to the Chinese version.

This comment has been corrected. Thanks very much for pointing out the mistake!

(Translated by Xiaoyu Guan)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

重组

受当前的低迷形势影响,发达国家缩减花销,关注效率,从而可能催生出大量发达国家本土的垃圾回收公司,而非出口废物再进口处理后的成品。油价反弹也会促进这一变革。
(由hunt.lee1987翻译)

reorganization

The downtown and resulting frugality and focus on efficiency by developed nations may create many more recycling companies in those countries instead of exporting the waste and importing the finished product. The rebound in oil prices will also assist this.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

原来如此

前几天我去回收站卖半年来攒的瓶子,一问人家价钱,大吃一惊:两个才给一毛钱!无奈之下,一共才卖了3.5元!看了文章才发现,原来废品收购行业这么不景气啊!

It seems to be true

A few days ago I went to the recycling point to sell the bottles I've been saving for half a year. After asking the price I was shocked - for one bottle you only get 0.1 RMB! What could I do? Altogether my bottles were only sold for 3.5 RMB! Having read the article I realise that the waste industry is in such sluggish shape!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

拾荒者不见了

怪不得那些在我们社区街道上的年轻拾荒者最近不见了.过去,他们甚至会为了争斗废弃物而大打出手.

Collectors disappeared

No wonder those young collectors on the streets of my community have recently disappeared ! In previous years,they even fought each other for scraps!