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“Energy-efficient” buildings? Not always

New climate-controlled edifices in China are promoted as eco-friendly and desirable. But, writes Li Taige, researchers in Beijing have found that high-tech can mean high energy use – and no fresh air.

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A friend of mine lives in Beijing Tiptop International Apartments, one of the city’s high-end residential complexes. One of the building’s features is a climate-control system that maintains a constant temperature and humidity.

But such comfort does not come cheap. He pays 8,000 yuan (about US$1,170) a month for his two-bedroom apartment -- no small price.

The apartments are five years old and known for their use of energy-saving technology. According to the property developers, the building was China’s first “high-comfort, low-energy” project. Temperatures are kept at between 20° and 26° Celsius (68° and 78.8° Fahrenheit) without the need for individual air-conditioning units or radiators, and the ventilation system is said to provide health benefits. The project also claims to be “the first building in China to reach European energy-saving standards” -- and to have “caused a sensation, with 1,300 media reports”.

The Tiptop is not the only Beijing building to use climate control as a selling point. Other examples include the Modern Group’s Moma buildings. The Grand Moma (Linked Hybrid) residences, Shangdi Moma and even the villa community of Forest Forever Moma all boast constantly controlled temperature and humidity.

For a long time I’d been a supporter of these buildings. After all, they save energy and still ensure a pleasant environment. However, after reading the 2008 Annual Report on Chinese Energy Efficiency, my opinion started to change.

Produced by Tsinghua University’s Building Energy Research Centre in Beijing, this report points out that if “energy-saving technology” is simply put in place without careful selection and management, energy use may not fall. In fact, it may increase substantially.

A residential building in Beijing is given as an example. A high-efficiency central air-conditioning system was installed to provide 24-hour climate control throughout the building. This was hailed as a fine example of energy saving. But in summer it uses eight times as much energy as traditional air-conditioning methods.

The report goes on to say that not only do these controlled environments fail to save energy, they also fail to be healthier, more comfortable or more convenient. A temperature of 26° is not the upper limit of comfort in the summer; it is the lower limit. A temperature of over 26° benefits health and reduces the illnesses that air-conditioning can cause. With natural ventilation, a temperature of 29° (84.2°) is most comfortable.

It seems there may be no benefit to the pursuit of constantly controlled environments.

Because the phenomenon of “energy-saving” buildings is not restricted to the residential sector, office complexes suffer the same problem. One office development in Beijing installed a number of solar water heaters. This is all very well, but the system used requires the water to circulate constantly. And the cost of running those pumps was almost as much as the cost of heating the water in the first place. This is hardly power saving.

A central government organisation refurbished its offices in 2003, replacing single-glazed windows with double-glazing for better insulation -- but the majority of the new windows could not be opened. The individual air-conditioning units in each room also were replaced with multi-room units, or “quasi-central air-conditioning”. The result was that the building’s energy consumption rose by 50%, with energy used for air-conditioning increasing fourfold. Even so, this is less consumption than that of many high-end government offices. Imagine how much energy is being wasted in all of Beijing’s other government offices.

The report also points out that the numerous large-scale and energy-hungry public buildings – government offices, concert halls, museums, transportation hubs and so on – have become a way of demonstrating economic prowess. The refitting of existing public buildings, too, is causing large increases in energy use.

The new China Central Television (CCTV) headquarters in Beijing in Beijing could be called bizarre in design, and their appearance has earned them the nickname of “the giant pants”, but every time I walk past them I find myself wondering how much energy the building will use when it is fully operational.

Simply installing energy-saving technology without thinking about how it will actually be used is not a practice unique to Beijing. At a discussion with the news media organised by the Climate Change Journalists Club, Jiang Yi – a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) and professor at the Building Energy Research Centre – provided a number of examples from around China.

A solar energy firm in Wuxi in Jiangsu province employed a Dutch architect to design a 20,000-square-metre office building, using energy-efficient glass. However, the windows could not be opened, turning the building into a glass box that relies on a mechanised ventilation system. The building is equipped with solar panels, but the energy they supply is inadequate to power the ventilation system – hence a perfectly sound energy-saving mechanism has been wasted. The building is due to be completed this year, and may yet appear in the news media as another energy-efficient success.

At the end of last year, Yalong Bay in Hainan province started work on a huge central-cooling system. A modern refrigeration plant will deliver cold air to hotels in the area via a network of pipes – much as heating is delivered in the north of China. The project will cost 100 million yuan (US$14.5 million) and is Hainan’s first national-level energy-saving project. It is also said to be China’s largest central-cooling system. But Jiang has his doubts, suspecting that the project actually will increase energy consumption.

As the report makes clear, we can now create and maintain any environment we choose; we can do so in one of two ways: relying primarily on machinery or primarily on nature.

The “machinery-first” model uses artificial ventilation, air-conditioning and lighting to create the desired indoor environment. To do so on a global scale would require 30% more energy than is available – and it is not necessarily good for our health. For example, many “modern” buildings have few, if any, windows that can be opened, resulting in poor air quality and other problems.

A “nature-first” approach allows for ventilation via open windows and the use of natural light and shade, and when this is not adequate, supplementation with artificial means, such as heating. Climate control is adjusted in tandem with the environment.

So the researchers at Tsinghua hold that we should use that natural approach, improving living conditions without increasing power use. And this is the only option for real energy-saving buildings when we are faced with both scarce resources and huge environmental pressures.

I hope that my friend, and the rest of China, can realise the truth about China’s “energy-efficient” buildings.

 

Li Taige is a Beijing-based journalist. He obtained a master’s degree in engineering from Sichuan University in 1997 and was a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2003-04.

Homepage photo by mediko83

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评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

名不副实的“节能”建筑不只出现在中国

在美国大学校园中同样存在很多号称“节能”的建筑,但其实节能功能并未能被切实应用。最终导致能源仍然被浪费。梭罗的名言能为我们指明方向:“简朴,简朴,简朴。”
(本评论由Zheng Shen翻译)

It's not just buildings in China that are inefficient

There are buildings at many US universities that claim to be energy efficient but cannot be used by the people that work in them. So energy is still being wasted.

It is better to live as Henry David Thoreau said "simplify, simplify."

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

与系统的协调

这是一篇很好的文章,指出了一直被忽略的一个重要问题,系统协调的重要性。不管是节能技术还是可再生能源技术,都不能脱离他们应用的系统独立的评估他们的作用。文中的这些例子,如太阳能热水器和隔热的双层玻璃都是由于技术体系之间的冲突导致不能取得技术本身所应提供的节能效果。就像在一个设计老旧的机器上只更换上几个精致的零件,并不能使它成为精密的先进机器,也不能发挥那几个零件的作用一样。同理,先进的技术体系如果没有合适的政策扶持引导,同样也不能发挥应有的作用,就像使用清洁能源的汽车需要在税收和油价法面的政策调整才能充分体现其节能环保的优越性一样。应用了节能技术的建筑不是节能的建筑,只有在充分考虑了节能技术与系统的的适应和协调的基础上,才能真正成为节能建筑。

王韬---廷道尔气候变化研究中心和苏塞克斯能源研究小组

coordination and integration of new technology

This is a well written article. It highlights a long neglected problem: the coordination and integration of composite systems in a complex system. Be it energy-saving or renewable energy technology, they are not to be evaluated and applied independently. The cases mentioned in the article, such as solar panels and double-glazed insulation, are all examples in which energy-saving technologies that are ill-fitted with each other fall far short of the effect they are supposed to achieve. An analogy can be drawn with the fact that simply replacing a few components with new ones for an old-fashioned machine won’t make it up-to-date, neither will the new components work well. Similarly, without the support of adequate policy, new technology won’t achieve its ideal result. A case in point is the environmental advantages of clean energy cars can only work well with adjustment in taxation and oil prices. An energy-saving building doesn’t refer to a building to which energy-saving technology is applied, but a building which hosts well coordinated and integrated energy-saving technologies. Wang tao, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change and Sussex Energy Group.

(This comment is translated by Yang Bin)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不应该盲目追求节能

中国人似乎都有这样的毛病,一提到节能,就使劲往上靠,忽略了很多深入应该考虑的问题。
建筑节能确实不应该是简单的产品堆砌,但是对于更换灯泡这样简单的措施还是很节能的。只是在主要耗能部分HVAC上,也许更应该考虑系统化在里面,怎样能节能同时还能保证舒适度,这是节能的关键。在我国日益对节能减排认识成熟的基础上,更多专家和节能服务产业应该认识到自己能力的不足,尽快提升业务能力,以适应加快的市场需求。
BTW.江亿教授的节能楼就是一个产品展示楼,根本谈不上节能,所以是不是应该从他本身的楼出发做个示范项目以说服众人呢?有待考量。

We should not blindly pursue energy saving technology

It seems that all Chinese people have this shortcoming: as soon as they hear “energy saving,” they suddenly want to use all their efforts to support it, but in the meantime they neglect to take time to thoroughly consider all the issues. Indeed, energy saving buildings are not supposed to be simple structures. Although replacing light bulbs to use more energy efficient ones is a simple and effective way to save energy. It’s just that for the main HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) spending part, maybe it’s even more important to consider the system’s changes. How can we save energy while at the same time ensuring a comfortable temperature? This is a pivotal point in energy saving. In my country, where it is increasingly recognized that we need to save energy in order to cut emissions, more experts and energy saving companies need to realize their own inadequacies and as quickly as possible upgrade their professional capabilities, and get accustomed to accelerating market demand.
BTW. Prof.Jiang's energy saving building is simply a building for product demonstration, which has nothing to do with energy saving. So shall we use his building as an example to persuade everyone? This requires a bit more consideration. (This comment was translated by Michelle Deeter.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

建筑节能的规定

关于建筑的节能要求,是否有相关的法律规定?如果有,应该严格的审核,并有积极的优惠政策,鼓励真正的节能设计

Regulations on Energy-efficient buildings

Are there legal regulations on energy-efficiency of buildings? If there are, strict auditing and positive favorable policies should be carried out to encourage real energy-efficient designs. This comment is translated by Lijin Zeng.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

某科技公司CEO Robert

建築節能是未來趨勢,希同行提供科學方案,本篇談得還不錯。我公司最近有意建新廠,也想考慮一番。

Energy conservations in building

Energy conservation in construction is a future trend and it should go along with scientific blue prints. This article gives a good account of this. Our conmpany has the intention to build a new factory and also wants to consider this.

Translated by Chen Liying(Anna)