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A price too high

South China’s smoggy skies have a grave impact on human health. The benefits of pollution control in southern China far outweigh the costs, finds a new study by Christine Loh, Anthony Hedley, Wong Tze Wai and Alexis Lau.
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New research conducted in Hong Kong, Macao and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of Guangdong province has for the first time identified and quantified the direct risks to public health caused by air pollution. According to the Civic Exchange report, A Price Too High: The Health Impacts of Air Pollution in Southern China, annual deaths attributable to the 2006 air pollution levels are estimated at 10,000 in southern China, with the majority (94%) occurring in the PRD. In addition, air pollution is also responsible for 440,000 annual hospital bed-days and 11 million annual outpatient visits throughout the region.

In financial terms, the hospital bed-days, lost productivity and doctor visits associated with this health impact amount to 1.8 billion yuan (US$262 million) a year in the PRD, HK$1.1 billion (US$140 million) in Hong Kong, and HK$18 million (US$2.3 million) in Macao. Adjusted for differences in gross domestic product across the region, the health-related monetary costs of air pollution in the PRD amount to 6.7 billion yuan (US$976 million) yuan. However, it should be noted that these figures do not take into account pain or suffering, or put a value on life, nor do they account for undiagnosed harm to people suffering from more minor ailments which were not consciously connected with air pollution.

These figures were made possible because for the first time direct comparisons could be drawn between emission levels of key toxins (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, respirable suspended particles and ozone) across the whole airshed that covers Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Macao. For the first time, this data could be correlated with similarly robust statistics on public health impacts. It should be noted that all these costs, both human and financial, are considered to be lower-end estimates.

There is a growing public awareness and concern about the harmful effects of air pollution. Hazy days have increased dramatically throughout the PRD over the last two decades. And in the last few years there has been growing concern that not only are pollution levels consistently higher than World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines (which are based on preventing negative impacts to human health), but local air quality also often fails to meet less stringent local standards. This is particularly true in PRD industrial areas such as Foshan, where at one station annual particulate matter (of 10 micrometres or less, PM10) levels were recently 600% above WHO guidelines. Satellite images from 2007 also indicate that conditions have worsened considerably since the last joint regional review in 2003.

The report also highlights the consequences of deeply inadequate research into regional air pollution, noting that it is difficult for governments to make policy and implement strategies to tackle air pollution and related declines in public health without sufficient information. It is equally difficult for the public to take steps to protect itself from the harmful effects of air pollution, in particular by expressing concern to government. Previously just 37 studies have been published on the public health effects of air pollution in the last 25 years.

While such a comprehensive study has never previously been prepared, many stakeholders in the region have been frustrated with the slow pace of government action in controlling air pollution over the years, and point to successful steps that have been taken elsewhere in the world. Moreover, recent data has highlighted the health-related costs of pollution and the possible threat of air quality to economic competitiveness appears to be substantial. A June 2006 report provided an initial assessment of the public health costs of air pollution in Hong Kong, conservatively concluding that, “the reduction of pollution to the levels in other world cities, such as London, Paris and New York, would avoid over 1,600 deaths” annually.

Looking forward

It is very much hoped that the fast-approaching East Asian Games, planned for Hong Kong in 2009, and the much larger Asian Games, which are due to take place in Guangzhou in 2010 will provide the stimulus to address air pollution more seriously, especially after noting the great difficulties Beijing has faced in trying to improve air quality ahead of the Olympic Games in August 2008.

There have been recent signs of increased government commitment, including the 2003 establishment of the cross-border Pearl River Delta Regional Air Quality Management Plan and the current review by the Hong Kong Government, to its 20-year-old Air Quality Objectives. However, other signs point to business-as-usual, such as the “best-effort basis” rather than a stronger policy commitment to targets set by the Hong Kong and Guangdong governments.

Some of the pieces for finding the answers are in place. The ongoing provision of real-time data to the public across the PRD from the existing regional monitoring network could increase awareness and understanding of daily conditions, facilitate greater research and allow for immediate feedback on the success of government policy. It is also vitally important that the same dataset for 2007 be provided so that direct assessment can be made and year-on year trends identified.

Hong Kong’s current Air Pollution Index is not only insufficient but also misleading, as it is not directly linked with health protection. Revising its Air Quality Objectives to be in line with WHO guidelines, thereby honestly revealing the scale of the problem would provide the Hong Kong Government with a powerful driver to improve air quality and public health.

Most importantly the report lays down a complete strategy that would enable the authorities in the PRD Hong Kong and Macau to exercise leadership by taking immediate efforts to deal comprehensively with the air quality problem. Abandoning the existing piecemeal approach ad adopting a total air quality management framework is the necessary first step, as it has proven most successful in controlling air pollution in other urban regions around the world.  


Christine Loh is the CEO of Civic Exchange

Anthony Hedley is chair professor in the department of community medicine, School of Public Health, Hong Kong University

Wong Tze Wai is professor in the department of community and family medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Alexis Lau is associate professor in the civic engineering department and director of the environmental central facility, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

烟雾问题

我从未去过中国南方,但当我在天津慢跑时可以感觉到有烟雾被吸进喉咙。我觉得所有的城市都应该有大气质量指数并且公布在每天的报纸上。

本评论由Allen Ye翻译

Smog is bad

I've never been to Southern China, but when I was jogging in Tianjin I could feel the smog in my throat.

I think all cities should use the same air quality index, and publish it in the daily newspaper.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

三地合作 刻不容缓

珠三角地区的空气污染严重影响广东,香港和澳门三个地方。 单是一两个地方下决心除污是不够的,一定得三地通力合作,达成共识,才能令珠三角空气恢复正常。

Cooperation in three places

Air pollution in the Pearl River Delta has seriously affected Guangdong province, Hong Kong and Macao. It will not be sufficient if just one or two parties have the determination to control pollution, there must be cooperation across all three parties to reach a certain degree of agreement, as to bring the air quality in the Pearl River Delta back to normal.(Translated by Siew Ling)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

为蓝天打气

我是土生土长的香港人,发现近几年香港的空气污染问题越来越严重,走在人多车多的地方总是觉得抖不过气。蓝天已成为奢侈品。

Hope for blue skies

I was born and brought up in Hong Kong. I am aware that in recent years, the pollution issue has worsened, I felt smothered in crowded and busy streets. Blue skies have become luxury goods. (Comment translated by Siew Ling)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

蓝天白云

我是蒙古族,小的时候在内蒙古呼伦贝尔大草原长大,那时真的是蓝蓝的天空白云飘,呵呵估计我们再也不会有那样的天空了,我现在生活在北京,这段时间的北京就好象是南方的梅雨天气一样!

where's the blue sky and white clouds?

As an ethnic Mongolian, I was brought up in Hulunbuir Prairie of Inner Mongolia.
At that time the sky was extremely blue and white clouds floated by. I'm afraid the sky will never be so blue and the clouds will never be so white again. I'm now living in Beijing, where the weather in recent days is like the rainy season in the south of China. (translated by Yang bin)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

南方已没从前那么美了

一直以来,我都想到南方走走。我觉得那的风景一定很漂亮。但似乎事实跟我的想象不相径庭。环境污染越来越严重了,气体排放不但污染空气,也影响气候。这正是其它地方应给予重视的问题。(此评论由Canly Tseng翻译)

The south is not as beautiful as before

The south is always a place where I want to have a visit.I think the scenes there must be very beautiful.But the truth seems to prove that my imagine is not correct.The environment problem is becoming more and more seriously,the gas emissions not only bring air pollution but also climate change.It is a problem which other regions should also pay a great attention.——Jia

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

希望我们都爱护我们的家园

为了我们的后代能够分享到一份清新的空气,让我们从自己做起,爱护我们的地球!

Hope we all could take good care of our homes

In order to give future generations a breath of fresh air, let’s start with ourselves and take good care of our planet.
(Comment translated by Meg Cheng)