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In China, the death of a mountain town

Landslides and mudslides in the Beichuan region added to the high death toll in May’s earthquake. Now, writes Li Taige, familiar warnings are being heard. Will historic errors be repeated?

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The most shocking of the many tragedies of the Sichuan earthquake on May 12, 2008, was that of the town of Qushan, the county seat of Beichuan.

The quake left the town virtually flattened. Official statistics put the dead and missing at 13,000 – out of a population of only 40,000. The town is no longer habitable, and a memorial is to be built on its ruins.

Beichuan, the only Qiang-nationality autonomous county in China -- and under the jurisdiction of Mianyang municipality -- suffered not just from the tremors themselves but also from the landslides and mudslides triggered by the quake. If these geological-disaster risks had been considered when the county seat was located here or as it expanded, the destruction may not have been so total. 

Beichuan before the earthquake

Beichuan lies in the north-west of the Sichuan basin, and has a history stretching back 14 centuries. However, the county’s administrative centre was moved to Qushan just over 50 years ago, in 1952. Why this was done is unclear, but one theory is that Qushan’s better outside links meant quicker reinforcements could arrive when bandits were at large.

The move, as the future would prove, was a mistake. Qushan lies in a narrow valley between steep mountains, and landslides are common in the area. Even without earthquakes, it is a dangerous place to live.

In an article published in 1992, Zhang Defan of Mianyang’s water management authorities pointed out that Qushan’s steep mountainsides, location on a fault line and complex geological conditions caused repeated landslides and mudslides. When the county seat was relocated, Qushan was home to only 500 people. Of course, the problems continued after the relocation.

In the 1980s, experts pointed out the risks of the location -- on the Longmenshan fault and between mountains. The locals started to worry that one day those mountains would bury them.

According to Caijing magazine, in the late 1980s the county authorities once suggested moving the administrative centre again – to the town of Leigu, which lies on flatter ground and indeed saw fewer deaths and less damage in the May earthquake. But funding for the relocation was not forthcoming and the experts could not decide if the move was necessary or not. The plans did not go ahead.

In his report, based on results of a survey of the area, Zhang Defan said that “the surrounding mountains are stable, and there is no chance of a collapse destroying the town.”

So the idea of moving the county seat was gradually forgotten, and the town continued to grow. But land was scarce. Qushan is surrounded by mountains and water, and there was only about a square kilometre of land available for building. A new part of the town was founded across the Jian River at Maoba. But Maoba itself lies at the bottom of a mountainside and is, again, a dangerous location. Despite this, plans for rapid expansion of the town were approved. By the end of 2005, it covered 1.6 square kilometres and had provincial approval for plans to expand to 4.1 square kilometres by 2020.

But the risks were not entirely forgotten. Materials from Beichuan’s Land Bureau show concerns about potential landslides and a number of reports were made to the provincial government. In 2004, work was carried out on the mountainside at Wangjiayan in the old town. In 2005, Wangjiayan was listed as a provincial-level project, winning funding of 1.52 million yuan (more than US$220,000). And in July 2006, work on columns to stabilise the slope, retaining walls and drainage was completed.   

But when hit by such a huge earthquake, the value of these works was limited. Beichuan was buried. 

As one survivor, who lost more than ten relatives in the quake, said: “If the mountainside hadn’t collapsed, not so many would have died.” Wang Zifa, head of the China Earthquake Administration’s Institute of Engineering Mechanics (IEM), said in an interview with Science and Technology Daily that half of the losses in Beichuan were due to the landslides.

Two thirds of China’s land is mountains and hills. Add in rain that tends to fall heavily over a small area, and landslides become a more frequent problem than earthquakes.

The mistakes made in Beichuan should not be repeated – but the existing situation is worrying. The locations of many towns and villages have not been well chosen.

In recent years the Chinese government has spent several billions of yuan on preventing landslides in and around the Three Gorges Dam, the world’s largest. But in many areas, funding is inadequate, if not severely lacking.

And to add to these existing dangers, new risks still are being taken. In some mountain areas, the geological conditions are ignored and towns are built on already unstable hillsides – raising the risk of disaster.

The tragedies that occurred in Wulong and Tengchong in recent years are cases in point.

On May 1, 2001, a landslide destroyed a residential building in Wulong county in Chongqing municipality, killing 79 people. Part of the hillside had been removed to build a road, and private developers had excavated further in order to make room for the building.

On July 19, 2007, a mudslide near a hydroelectric plant in Tengchong county in Yunnan province buried barracks housing construction workers, killing 29 people. The China Institute of Geo-Environment Monitoring (CIGEM) blamed “engineering work”.

The destruction of Beichuan has sounded another warning. As Xu Qiang, deputy head of Chengdu University of Technology’s geohazard prevention laboratory, said in an interview with Caijing, landslide risk management and control must be made an integral part of urban planning and construction in mountainous areas.

 

Li Taige is a Beijing-based journalist. He obtained a master’s degree in engineering from Sichuan University in 1997 and was a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2003-04.

 
 

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

沉重的一课

这次地震给很多人都上了沉重的一课!
-FCN

Hard lesson

The Sichuan earthquake has given many people a hard lesson. -FCN

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国特殊的背景和国情,值得理解

全世界,皆可谓叹中国的人口数量和地势地貌。又敢问,那个人或者那个政府能够将好好存在的一整个县搬出去,更何况能够搬到哪里去呢??
除了人口数量和地势地貌造成中国绝对的任何一个可以适合住人的地方都已经人口承载数量超出世界水平这个大前提,我们还必须深刻地了解中国的文化,尤其是少数民族的文化。如果了解这两个文化,想必绝对不会有人贸然去搬动平安无事的一整个县。当然,现在的搬迁是不可避免,但是也不妨调查,肯定还会有不少人依然眷恋着这片地方。
任何一个少数的人为的想法和事情,必须看的全面,考虑的多,往往需要舍身处理到把自己当作当事人的角色去考虑问题,才能真正的客观评论。
千万不要做一个野蛮、霸道的纯人类主义的自谓的环保人士的样子自居

China is a special situation

China has a population of 1.3 billion, and more than 60% of its land is unsuitable for human existence. It's difficult to find another good place to move the whole city to because every decent place is already overloaded. Of course, we also need consider cultures, especially minority cultures. Nobody would want to remove an established city if they truly understand these situations. Now migration is the only way to reconstruct the city. Think about that. We need to make a decision after reflecting and considering everything and thinking with someone else's perspective. Don't consider oneself always right and make yourself an arbitrary environmentalist.

This comment was translated by Allen Ye

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

致命无能

是谁批准了这项建筑计划? 在追究责任方面又采取什么样的措施呢? 我认为应该归功于事情的发生而获得教训 - - 腐败无能是要害。倘若在事故中不能获得教训, 那么受害者和其家属的遭遇不就等于白费了吗!我阅读了财经杂志的报道, 对于赈灾的拨款,仅有19%到达灾手中。这是事实吗?(秀錂译)

lethal incompetence

Who approved these construction projects? What action is being taken to find out who is responsible? I think we owe it to the dead to learn the lessons -- incompetence and corruption kill people. If these lessons are not learned then all the sympathy for the victims and their families is empty. I read in Caijing magazine that only 19 per cent of the donations given by people for earthquake relief actually reached the victims.Is this true?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

有人才有文化

能搬一次县城就不能搬第二次了?上一次搬迁就没触动文化,这次搬文化就死绝了?保卫羌文化的又有几个了解羌文化是什么。文化是通过人才能延续下去的,没有人继承的文化是化石的存在。

You can only have culture if you have people

If a county seat moved once, couldn’t it move again? Last time the county seat moved, it did not adversely affect the culture, and this time the culture moved to its death. Those who defend the Qiang minority culture need to understand what the Qiang minority culture is. Culture is something that passes through talented people before it is passed on. If no one is there to inherit it, the culture becomes a fossil and ceases to exist.
(Comment translated by Michelle Deeter)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

悲哀

实际上,现在的规划很多,但从不考虑环境评估,在许多人的意识中,环境评估是多余的,这就是我们目前许多领导层的实际水平,以非专业人员管理专业机构,几千年都不愿改变。

Tragic

Even today, most plans still fail to take environmental assessment into account. In the eyes of many people it's no more than an unnecessary inconvenience, a view to which a substantial portion of our leaders and politicians continue to subscribe. Still, I suppose the hallowed practice of placing ill-informed amateurs at the helm of professional organizations isn't likely to change any time soon...