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Managing Chinese forests responsibly

China is one of the world’s biggest timber producers, importers and exporters. What issues does the logging trade raise for the country, asks Zhang Kejia, and how can it be made more sustainable?

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One result of China's rapid economic growth has been the massive expansion of the timber trade, which has been growing by over 110% annually for the past few years. People are now asking: will such heavy demand result in the shrinking of China’s forests and a change in the country’s ecology?

Chen Xiaoqian works for The Nature Convervancy's (TNC) forest project. She believes that forest resources can be used sustainably, as long as two key rules are followed: forests must be managed efficiently; and forest products must be used in a sustainable way.

Man-made forests accounted for only 3% of total global forest coverage in 2000, but managed to satisfy 35% of demand for lumber. Many timber-producing countries have shed their reliance on natural forests, and rely instead on man-made forest. In Brazil, for example, man-made forests satisfied 62% of demand for lumber in the same year, showing how the global forestry trade can move towards sustainability.

China is now one of the world's largest producers, consumers and traders of timber, says Chen Jiawen of the Chinese State Forestry Administration, and it will have increasingly influence in the development of sustainable forestry. In 1998, China placed strict limitations on logging in old-growth and natural forests. These measures received widespread recognition from the Chinese leadership and the public, and illegal logging was reduced. Now, with demand for timber on the rise, there are several steps that can be taken. Expanding man-made forests and planting fast-growing, high-yield species is one. But there are other effective measures for achieving sustainability, such as forest certification and stepping up the fight against illegal logging and the black market in timber.

Establishing a forest certification system in China, says Chen Xiaoqian, has been a long, drawn-out process. The National Certification Small Group was set up in 2001, but only in March 2006 was the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) China Work Group established. There are currently only 300 companies in China monitored and certified by the FSC. TNC, however, has been heavily involved in publicising forest certification in pilot areas. The group carried out training in the Great Kinghan area and in southwest China to raise ecological awareness and management skills among those who manage forests.

In European and American markets, products are benefiting from having received forest certification. In Britain, said a report from last year’s EU-China Conference on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance, 93% of timber products sold by popular hardware chain B&Q were certified. In the US, almost 30% of timber products sold by some companies originate from certified forests. However, as the market for certified timber products rapidly expands, there are barely any certified products on the Chinese market. This is extremely worrying both to conservation experts and many of those involved in the Chinese timber business.

In response to claims that there is still a trade in illegal timber in China, and that some lumber comes from tropical forests of high ecological value, Chen Jiawen says that such problems exist in many countries. What is needed, he says, is for the countries involved to take urgent, coordinated action to crack down on illegal logging and smuggling. The root cause of the problem, says Chen, is an imbalance in the global economy.

Illegal logging, he says, takes revenue away from local economies, harms legal operators, disrupts international markets, destroys forests, depletes natural resources and severely affects the sustainable development of the environment, society and the economy. China takes the same stance as other countries, adds Chen, and has always clamped down hard on illegal logging and trading, regarding it as an important measure in achieving sustainable development. Effective management of forest resources is a key part of the fight against these crimes.

China strictly manages its domestic forest resources, says Chen, and it has sufficient legal frameworks and monitoring capabilities to tackle its problems. However, tackling the international trade in illegally-logged timber is harder. He says the Chinese government has carried out forest management training in timber-producing countries in Africa, Oceania and southeast Asia. People in forested areas of Burma, Laos and Cambodia have been helped to plant trees as cash-crops, which can replace illegal drug crops. These programmes guarantee the recovery of the environment by providing alternative livelihoods to locals.

Chen Jiawen's sentiments were confirmed in a speech made by Michael Dosim Lunjew, Malaysia's minister of plantation industries and commodities, at the EU-China Conference on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance.

Lunjew explained to the conference that a great deal of Malaysian timber is turned into furniture by Chinese companies, which then sell the products in Europe. In order to maintain Malaysia's rich forest resources, the country has signed cooperation agreements with organisations from China and elsewhere to put in place measures that will promote sustainable forest management. Currently, 44% of natural forest in Malaysia is protected by law.

Chen Jiawen says that 60% of China's timber is now domestically produced, most of which comes from approved man-made forests. A small amount also comes from natural forests, which are only allowed to be logged intermittently. The Chinese government also requires that all logging and timber-processing companies operating abroad obey local laws and regulations that help locals to protect, foster and renew resources. The State Forestry Administration and the Ministry of Commerce last year jointly released the Guide to Sustainability in Forestry for Chinese Companies Operating Abroad, demanding companies should adhere strictly to local laws, protect forest resources and must not transfer land assigned as forest to other uses.

Discussing the rapid growth of China as a centre of imports and exports of timber over the last decade, Chen Jiawen says that this is the inevitable result of globalisation. As China's global economic influence grows, it is notable for its efforts to take responsibility for sustainable sourcing of forest products.

Many experts have pointed out that both producer and consumer countries share the responsibility for sustainability of forests.

She Xuebin is the chair of the board for a Guangdong-based company, and is keen to buy products originating from certified forests because it is now becoming common practice. Currently, 80% of his company's products come from certified forests, and at times over the last five years, this figure has risen to 100%. He says that many consumers do not mind paying slightly more for environmentally friendly products; his company has been running a successful scheme called “Buy my floorboards and I'll plant trees”. Since forests naturally expand at a rate of around 2% per year, he explains, a certain amount of logging can be carried out without causing harm. The key is that the amount taken must allow the forest to maintain its own ecosystem. Real wood floorboards require timber from natural forests, most of which currently comes from Africa and Russia. Timber is Africa's second-largest export after oil. She Xuebin says that his company will help source countries to improve their standards of forest management and attain international certification, providing a sound basis for a successful business and a flourishing market.

In response to allegations that some Chinese logging companies are causing poverty in country where they operate, Chen Jiawen says the Chinese government has never received any complaints from exporting countries. Complex and often opaque supply chains provide opportunities for illegal trading, but the Chinese government has always used strictly examined companies in such high-risk areas of business.

The China Timber Circulation Association says that the government should place more emphasis on forest certification and provide support with favourable policies and financial aid. They should also encourage companies to invest in ecological reconstruction and forest recovery. The government should provide for the more rapid introduction of forest certification in China – after all, the Chinese market for wood products relies on permanent supply of lumber from well-managed forests.


Kejia Zhang is a reporter for China Youth Daily

 

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

认证的努力

很有意思的从这篇文章中获知原来从人工林中可以创造如此大的收益,还有这样的木材生产方式正被一些主要的出口商们运用着。中国的木材贸易在以不可思议的速度增长,并且不仅仅是在中国,邻国的国家(例如马来西亚)也把木材出口到中国来加工。这样一来,中国开始主动地只使用认证的木材并且只进口那些有相似认证的国家的树木是很重要的。这样的开始将有助于建立林业责任制的标准和鼓励更好的林业管理。----- TRS

Certification Efforts

This article is interesting in that I didn't know that there was such a great yield possible from man made forests or that such means of timber production were utilized by leading exporters. China's timber trade is increasing at an incredible rate and the business isn't just in China but with neighboring countries who export timber to china for manufacturing (malaysia). For this reason, it is important that China take the initiative to only use trees from certified forests and only import trees from countries who have similarly approved forests. This kind of initiative will set the standard for forest responsability and hopefully will help encourage proper forest management. TRS

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

中国的成就

中国对森林资源可持续管理的支持及所做出的努力,令我深感欣慰。中国似乎在一个独特的位置影响着全球伐木业的运作方式。毋庸置疑,中国是伐木业的主导者。我相信通过禁止各单位同未经许可的公司的商业来往,中国能促进森林资源的可持续发展。我本人非常赞成“买我的地板,就由我植树造林”这项运动。并一贯看好中国在一些特定领域的可持续发展中所起的带头作用。中国支持利用人造林兴建房屋和开发,这一点上远远领先于美国。

Kudos to China!

It is impressive to read of China's efforts to support and promote sustainable forestry. It seems China is in a unique position to influence the way logging is done around the world. China is certainly a major player. By refusing to allow business exchanges with companies that are not certified, I think China can incentivize sustainable practices. I particularly enjoyed the "Buy My Floor Boards and I'll Plant Trees" campaign! I continue to be impressed with China's leadership in certain areas of sustainability. China is way ahead of the US in supporting mostly manmade forests for building and development.
CUNappo

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

编造还是事实?(第一部分)

沃尔玛刚刚被揭露购买中国制造的非法木材(来自俄罗斯)。中国被公认为非法木材的世界交易中心。反复的曝光和大量的报道似乎印证着这个观点。也许把这些翻译成中文,并可以在中国的互联网上获得,会使它更有影响力。中国进口的40%很可能都是非法的。因为原产地不同程度的腐败和官僚,指望那里的官员和司法的抗议可能会显得幼稚。大布分中国非法进口的木材的供应商是和福建省有关联的马来西亚企业。而在中国发生的非法采伐,主要在云南,则一般与外国势力相联。

Spin or reality? (part 1)

Wallmart has just been exposed for buying wood products made in China from illegal (Russian) timber. China is known as the world hub for trade in Illegal Timber. Repeated exposés and numerous reports tend to confirm this. Perhaps these would have more impact if translated into Chinese - and made freely available over the Internet in China.

40% of what China imports is probably illegal. It would be naïf to expect complaints about this from producer country officials and judiciaries given the extent of their corruption and complicity. Most of China's illegal tropical timber is supplied by Malaysian firms linked to Fujian province. Illegal Logging takes places in China - notably in Yunnan, typically with foreign involvement.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

编造还是事实?(第二部分)

中国在可持续性林木砍伐,尤其是热带地区林木砍伐上太缺少经验(中国林木砍伐的禁令就是这种结果的表现),那个关于中国企业可以在砍伐热带国家自然森林的问题上树立良好的榜样的建议简直就是空想。另外,大多数给中国供应木材的企业雇佣的都是中国劳动力,而不是当地劳动力,同时其森林管理再也十分糟糕,这便引起了当地人民的极大不满。但是,高层的政策保护将暴力对抗的风险控制在最低可能。

Spin or reality? (part 2)

China has so little experience of sustainable logging (the ban on logging in China's forests is a consequence of this) - particularly in the tropics - that the suggestion that Chinese enterprises can set a good example in logging natural forest in tropical countries is at best fanciful. Further, most of the enterprises which supply logs to China use Chinese labour rather than local labour - which, coupled with poor forest management, leads to great local resentment. However, high levels of political patronage tend to minimise the risk of violent backlash.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

编造还是事实?(第三部分)

中国许多新植被的地理分布现状使其不可能带来很大的商业(社会)效益. 特别令人担忧的是变基因的树种的大面积种植. 在老挝,柬埔寨等地方一些树木常常是(也经常被指责是)种植在从当地人那儿非法购买的土地上的. 许多由森林认证委员会监管链发出的认证在中国被滥用,有些已经被吊销了.
中国的的本地及出口市场正在被由各种渠道输入的非法廉价木材而扰乱.中国需要的是有赢利的木材市场, 而不是木材本身. 很多关于中国指责是源于从中国进口木材的国家, 毕竟我们都身处同一个"全球木材市场'

Spin or reality? (part 3)

The geography of many of China's new plantations makes it unlikely that they will be a great commercial (or social) success. Particularly worrying is the spread of genetically modified trees. The development of some plantations in Laos, Cambodia and elsewhere (..) tends to require (and be an excuse for) the illegal acquisition of land rights from indigenous people.

Many of the FSC Chain of Custody certificates issued in China are used fraudulently and some have been revoked.

China's local and export markets are distorted by the cheapness of the implicitly illegal logs which China imports. China's need is for profitable timber not timber per se.

Much of the blame for China's poor reputation really does lie with the countries which import from China.

Posted by "globaltimber"

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

FSC

文中有两处错误:
1、FSC(www.fscchina.org)的正确中文译名为森林管理委员会。
2、目前,通过FSC产销监管链认证的企业全国已超过600家,而非文中提到的300多家

FSC

Two faults in this article:
1. The exact name of FSC in Chinese is '森林管理委员会'. 2. Over 600 companies but not the 300 mentioned that have been monitored and certified by FSC now.

Translated by Ming Li