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The <em>Dao De Jing</em> and the natural world

One of China’s earliest philosophical texts contains many lessons on living in harmony with nature. Martin Palmer, Victoria Finlay and He Xiaoxin explain how Daoists can help protect the land from the pollution and rapid development of China today.
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The Dao De Jing, which I have had the honour of translating into English, paints a fascinating and challenging picture of how Daoists see the world. For example, chapter four tells us that the Dao is the source of all life: generous, free flowing, timeless, indeed coming from a time before time itself. Yet today we see that human activity is bringing to an end many forms of life: it is poisoning the waters; polluting the air; changing the climate, destroying forests and killing thousands of species. The Dao is under attack as never before and it is we, human beings, who are attacking it.

And what does the Dao De Jing say about this?

Chapter 29 tells us that if a ruler behaves as if he invented the world, he will do no good at all. It goes on to say the earth is a sacred vessel and it cannot be owned or improved. Yet we behave as if we do own the world, as if nature was there just for us. Chapter 46 tells us that with greed running wild, and without the guidance of the Dao, the world is in danger.

And with this great threat of climate change, the world is in danger today.

Daoism holds the key to finding the way out of these crises because it understands where humanity should be within the Great Order of the Dao. Chapter 42 tells us exactly where we come in this Great Order - as part of the “three” that hold the world together - and it emphasises how we humans are absolutely essential in maintaining the balance of qi in the world. 

Daoists’ special role in protecting nature

The role of Daoists was recognised by the Declaration on the Environment created by the China Daoist Association in 1995.

“Daoism has a unique sense of value in that it judges affluence by the number of different species,” the report stated. “If all things in the universe grow well, then a society is a community of affluence. If not, this kingdom is on the decline.”

Daoists are inspired by the Dao De Jing 2,500 years ago, by the Daoist Declaration on the Environment 12 years ago and by the many centuries in between, during which Daoist believers have quietly cared for nature. But what can Daoists actually do?

The True Way

First, Daoists have a very strong teaching about how the way of Power is not the True Way. And today we might also echo chapter one by adding that the way of exploiting this fragile world and thinking that this will costs us nothing, is not the True Way. The way of Material Prosperity as the only worthwhile goal is not the True Way. And the way of human communities existing without regard to the communities of animals, plants, rocks, rivers and mountains that live beside them is not the True Way. By recognising that these are illusions, and living out your belief about the True Way, Daoists can restore a holistic vision of our world and our responsibilities.

Protecting species

Secondly, Daoists can set an example in protecting species. Traditional Chinese Medicine is so important in looking after sick people in China, and it has also become popular around the world. However, some unscrupulous people use the body parts of endangered species such as tigers and rhinoceroses to make their so-called medicine. Or they use the gall of bears kept in terrible conditions in tiny cages. This creates a problem, because a medicine designed to harmonise the vital forces in the body, but which itself destroys the harmonious balance of nature, cannot by definition be good medicine. It is not flowing with the Dao. It is destroying the flow of the Dao. As chapter 39 points out, the Dao has to be in unity with all for the power of the Dao to keep the world, the universe whole.

In 2000, the China Daoist Association set a wonderful example by officially publishing a document which outlawed any use of Traditional Chinese Medicine which used endangered species. This now needs to become more than just good words. It needs to become action. Let’s find ways of curbing this by introducing other prescriptions which do not use endangered animals, and do not destroy virgin forest areas or habitats either.

Caring for resources

Thirdly, you can look at your own resources. Many monasteries and temples own land. But is this managed ecologically and organically? If not, maybe it can be changed.

Many monasteries and temples are on sacred mountains. But do they help protect these mountains – for example by creating tree nurseries or by clearing rubbish from the hillsides? If not, then perhaps this can be changed.

As temples and monasteries are given back to the Daoists, do you restore them in sustainable ways? If not, perhaps this can be changed.

All monasteries and temples use paper, energy, transport and food: but is the paper eco-friendly? Is the energy renewable? Is the transport kept to a minimum and are the foodstuffs free of chemical sprays? And is the monastery itself a model of ecology so that local people can learn from it? Is it built from renewable resources? Is it ecological in its use of gardens and water, and does it have an eco-friendly car park? If not, then perhaps these things can be changed as well.

Training

Finally, Daoists are teachers. Could your monasteries and temples become training centres for traditional and sustainable methods of building, painting, carving and landscaping? We believe you could and we will help you to do this. Can we together, for example, make leaflets for pilgrims to take home from all the great Daoist pilgrimage sites, to teach them how to look after nature? The new Taibaishan ecology temple is doing just this. Let’s make this happen right across China.

Can we together train young people, the poorest of the poor, those who will otherwise have no skills, to become the builders of a new and beautiful China?

Or can we together run special day courses for local farmers or business-people, on how to live as good Daoists for the environment? Using the Taibaishan centre, let’s bring as many workshops there as possible to help train monks and nuns and lay people in how to live a Daoist life which respects and restores our relationship with nature.

Last year a new body called the Temple Alliance on Ecology Education, was set up at the first ecology workshop at Taibaishan. A declaration was made called the Qinling Declaration in which all the participants promised to:

- bring ecological education into temples;
- reduce pollution caused by incense burners etc;
- use farmed land sustainably;
- protect species and forests;
- save energy;
- protect water resources.

The Alliance of Religions and Conservation is willing to help on all these levels. We have been working as partners with China’s Daoists since 1995. We have helped Louguantai create the first ever Daoist ecology temple. We are helping produce Daoist educational materials for use in temples. But we are small and you are great, and we know that you can do so much more.

So let us bring the world back to an understanding of true Dao. As Zhuang Zi says in chapter 12, “Heaven and Earth”:

The Dao, how deep and quiet it lies;
How pure is its clarity!
Without it neither gold not stone would resonate.
The gold and stones have sounds within them
But if they are not struck, then no sound comes forth…

But now I would like to remind you of the last line of this verse…

“All the creatures in this world have dimensions that cannot be calculated.”

Martin Palmer is secretary general of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation.

Now more than ever…

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发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我不懂《道德经》

我是澳大利亚人,现在住在上海。我没觉得环境保护和宗教信仰有什么明显的关联。

I can't understand DDJ

I am an Aussie now livin in Shanghai,I see little evidence between the Religion and the environmental protection.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

道德牽涉到的問題不僅只是環保而已

網路上有句話說的好:「
人無德,天災人禍。
地無德,萬物凋落。
天無道,地裂天崩,蒼穹盡空。
法正,乾坤正,生機勃勃,天地固,法長存。」

真正重視道德,將道德作為生活的準則,
將會帶給世界長久的真正安定與和諧。

The issues brougth touched by Dao de Jing are not only relevant to environmental protection

There is a good quotation online: “Man without virtue will attract misfortune from the Heavens. Earth without virtue will cause the fall of a thousand living things. Heaven without virtue will cause the sky to split, and the earth to collapse; the firmament will exhaust its space.
If the good and natural law is respected, the world will rise to new vitality. It will enjoy the stability of Heaven and Earth, and the law will be upheld”.
If we give a real relevance to Dao De Jing it can become a way of life. It can bring a long period of order and harmony to the world.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复楼上的

我们所处的时代和老子的时代有着天地的差别,但是人类内心世界的精髓还是没有变化的,道德经中阐述的思想在今天同样对我们有很大的启示作用。

On the previous comment

Of course there are differences between the era we are living in and the one of Laozi, but the inner essence of humanity and of the world hasn’t changed. So the teachings of Dao de Jing are still valid enlightenments for our actions.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不错的博客

很高兴看到本文中写道的所有重要的事情。如果你想更多了解宇宙,请参阅“自然世界的感知”(sense in natural universe)

Good blog

I am very happy to see all the great things you have been been writing on the Dao De Jing. If you want to know more about the universe, please visit 'sense in natural universe'.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

道与环境

我认为, 经济体系对环境造成的破坏是在所难免。公正的经济体系,自然而然将减少对环境所造成的压力。Jiri

Dao and environment

I think it is the economic system that makes it almost inevitable that there will be great environmental damage. A more equitable economic system will automatically lead to less environmental pressues. Jiri

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

有效就行

很多人对用道家哲学督促人们改善环境作出了评论。我想结果比达成结果的方式更为重要。我并不完全赞同文中所写的关于道教的内容,作者的阐释也与道德经有所违背。但重要的是,既然作者的逻辑导向环境保护,我也就赞同他们的说法了。我特别喜欢他们提出的一些解决办法,如寺庙和教育。总之,抱怨却没有改变是比较容易的,看到一篇提出可行的办法的文章让人眼前一亮。很好!

Whatever works

Many people have commented on the use of Daoist philosophy to urge people to undertake environmental projects. I think it is more important to focus on the end result than the means to that end. I don't necessarily agree with everything written about Daoism. I feel that the writer extrapolated several conclusions that I don't think the Dao de Jing supported. What's important, though, is that as long as the writer's logic leads to a effort to protect the environment, then I have no problem with what they have said. I especially liked some of their solutions involving temples and education. In a world where it is easier to complain about a problem and then go on with your day, it is refreshing to see an article posing viable steps toward a solution. Well Done!
-Colin

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

智慧

对于愿意了解、学习和实践的人来说,无论他们生活在何处,或者是什么民族,知识和智慧都是敞开大门的。我们的一生中在某个时刻都可能是“外族人”或“外国人”。真实地好好地生活。Henry [email protected]

本评论由Janet YU翻译

all wisdom

Knowledge and wisdom is available to anyone who wishes to understand, learn and practice. No matter where they live or their ethnic background. We were all immigrants or foreigners at one time or another. Live well and true. Henry [email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

道家思想不等于道教

道家思想和道教不是一回事。老子是哲学家,《道德经》是哲学著作而非道教教条,道教只不过借用他和他的学说成就自身发展罢了,也许老子本人根本没有料到自己的思想会被宗教利用。宣扬《道德经》里固有的环保理念而不扯上道教也许更容易被无神论者和其他宗教信徒接受。当然,对那些信奉道教的人来说,直接利用宗教加强其环保意识是一条捷径。
zyn

Taoist ideas not equal with Taoism

Taoist ideas are not the same with Taoism. Lao-tse was a philosopher, his book Tao Te Ching is a philosophical master piece instead of Taoism doctrine. Taoism was developed by taking use of Lao-tse and his contributions, which Lao-tse might not had anticipated that his thoughts have been used to develp a religion. Advocating environmental protection ideas in Tao Te Ching and not connecting it with Taoism may be easier accepted by atheists and people of other religions. For Taoists, of couse, it's a shortcut to strengthen their ideas of environmental protection through a religion. translated by Lotus

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

行了,醒醒吧!

这是什么过时的玩意儿?!在英国,建筑师为大众建造更环保、更便利、更有趣的房子。但是,在这儿却让文章作者认为这些工作跟道德还有宗教有关。噢!行了,醒醒吧。建筑和环境是为了让人们有更好的体验,而不是去教育他们。一个专业的建筑师应该做更实际的工作。
——Li Li

(此评论由董鹤冰翻译 )

Come on, wake up

What a bloody out of date stuff is this?! In the UK, architects are working on friendly environment for common people, easy access, playable. But this He's work made Chinese people/professionals think we are doing some moral or religion related stuff. Oh, come on, wake up. Architecture/enviornment is for people's good experience than educating them. As an trained architect, should do something more practical. - Li Li

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

外国人可能能懂

外国人可能能懂-以他们的理解,但不喜欢说教。我也是在英国完成建筑学业的,学习过程有很多悟。最重要的是,创造性思维靠自己寻找,即启发式。所有的基础教育,包括道德教育也是启发式为主的。哪有这位的翻译什么道德经。与其翻译干嘛不画画?这种功夫即不能弘扬中华文化,只是摆摆自己有点学问。简直浪费时间。作者:理儿

Perhaps foreigners can understand

Perhaps foreigners do understand. They understand things without preaching. I completed my architectural studies in England and over the course of my study there learned a great deal. The most important thing is creative thinking and working things out for yourself, i.e. a problem-solving approach. All basic education, including moral education, is based on this heuristic approach.

Now this guy has gone and translated the Dao De Jing. I mean, why doesn't he draw nice little pictures to illustrate his translation while he's at it? This sort of project doesn't propagate Chinese culture, it just shows off that this guy has a little bit of education about him. It's just a waste of time.
Author: Li Er