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The <em>Dao De Jing</em> and the natural world

One of China’s earliest philosophical texts contains many lessons on living in harmony with nature. Martin Palmer, Victoria Finlay and He Xiaoxin explain how Daoists can help protect the land from the pollution and rapid development of China today.
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The Dao De Jing, which I have had the honour of translating into English, paints a fascinating and challenging picture of how Daoists see the world. For example, chapter four tells us that the Dao is the source of all life: generous, free flowing, timeless, indeed coming from a time before time itself. Yet today we see that human activity is bringing to an end many forms of life: it is poisoning the waters; polluting the air; changing the climate, destroying forests and killing thousands of species. The Dao is under attack as never before and it is we, human beings, who are attacking it.

And what does the Dao De Jing say about this?

Chapter 29 tells us that if a ruler behaves as if he invented the world, he will do no good at all. It goes on to say the earth is a sacred vessel and it cannot be owned or improved. Yet we behave as if we do own the world, as if nature was there just for us. Chapter 46 tells us that with greed running wild, and without the guidance of the Dao, the world is in danger.

And with this great threat of climate change, the world is in danger today.

Daoism holds the key to finding the way out of these crises because it understands where humanity should be within the Great Order of the Dao. Chapter 42 tells us exactly where we come in this Great Order - as part of the “three” that hold the world together - and it emphasises how we humans are absolutely essential in maintaining the balance of qi in the world. 

Daoists’ special role in protecting nature

The role of Daoists was recognised by the Declaration on the Environment created by the China Daoist Association in 1995.

“Daoism has a unique sense of value in that it judges affluence by the number of different species,” the report stated. “If all things in the universe grow well, then a society is a community of affluence. If not, this kingdom is on the decline.”

Daoists are inspired by the Dao De Jing 2,500 years ago, by the Daoist Declaration on the Environment 12 years ago and by the many centuries in between, during which Daoist believers have quietly cared for nature. But what can Daoists actually do?

The True Way

First, Daoists have a very strong teaching about how the way of Power is not the True Way. And today we might also echo chapter one by adding that the way of exploiting this fragile world and thinking that this will costs us nothing, is not the True Way. The way of Material Prosperity as the only worthwhile goal is not the True Way. And the way of human communities existing without regard to the communities of animals, plants, rocks, rivers and mountains that live beside them is not the True Way. By recognising that these are illusions, and living out your belief about the True Way, Daoists can restore a holistic vision of our world and our responsibilities.

Protecting species

Secondly, Daoists can set an example in protecting species. Traditional Chinese Medicine is so important in looking after sick people in China, and it has also become popular around the world. However, some unscrupulous people use the body parts of endangered species such as tigers and rhinoceroses to make their so-called medicine. Or they use the gall of bears kept in terrible conditions in tiny cages. This creates a problem, because a medicine designed to harmonise the vital forces in the body, but which itself destroys the harmonious balance of nature, cannot by definition be good medicine. It is not flowing with the Dao. It is destroying the flow of the Dao. As chapter 39 points out, the Dao has to be in unity with all for the power of the Dao to keep the world, the universe whole.

In 2000, the China Daoist Association set a wonderful example by officially publishing a document which outlawed any use of Traditional Chinese Medicine which used endangered species. This now needs to become more than just good words. It needs to become action. Let’s find ways of curbing this by introducing other prescriptions which do not use endangered animals, and do not destroy virgin forest areas or habitats either.

Caring for resources

Thirdly, you can look at your own resources. Many monasteries and temples own land. But is this managed ecologically and organically? If not, maybe it can be changed.

Many monasteries and temples are on sacred mountains. But do they help protect these mountains – for example by creating tree nurseries or by clearing rubbish from the hillsides? If not, then perhaps this can be changed.

As temples and monasteries are given back to the Daoists, do you restore them in sustainable ways? If not, perhaps this can be changed.

All monasteries and temples use paper, energy, transport and food: but is the paper eco-friendly? Is the energy renewable? Is the transport kept to a minimum and are the foodstuffs free of chemical sprays? And is the monastery itself a model of ecology so that local people can learn from it? Is it built from renewable resources? Is it ecological in its use of gardens and water, and does it have an eco-friendly car park? If not, then perhaps these things can be changed as well.

Training

Finally, Daoists are teachers. Could your monasteries and temples become training centres for traditional and sustainable methods of building, painting, carving and landscaping? We believe you could and we will help you to do this. Can we together, for example, make leaflets for pilgrims to take home from all the great Daoist pilgrimage sites, to teach them how to look after nature? The new Taibaishan ecology temple is doing just this. Let’s make this happen right across China.

Can we together train young people, the poorest of the poor, those who will otherwise have no skills, to become the builders of a new and beautiful China?

Or can we together run special day courses for local farmers or business-people, on how to live as good Daoists for the environment? Using the Taibaishan centre, let’s bring as many workshops there as possible to help train monks and nuns and lay people in how to live a Daoist life which respects and restores our relationship with nature.

Last year a new body called the Temple Alliance on Ecology Education, was set up at the first ecology workshop at Taibaishan. A declaration was made called the Qinling Declaration in which all the participants promised to:

- bring ecological education into temples;
- reduce pollution caused by incense burners etc;
- use farmed land sustainably;
- protect species and forests;
- save energy;
- protect water resources.

The Alliance of Religions and Conservation is willing to help on all these levels. We have been working as partners with China’s Daoists since 1995. We have helped Louguantai create the first ever Daoist ecology temple. We are helping produce Daoist educational materials for use in temples. But we are small and you are great, and we know that you can do so much more.

So let us bring the world back to an understanding of true Dao. As Zhuang Zi says in chapter 12, “Heaven and Earth”:

The Dao, how deep and quiet it lies;
How pure is its clarity!
Without it neither gold not stone would resonate.
The gold and stones have sounds within them
But if they are not struck, then no sound comes forth…

But now I would like to remind you of the last line of this verse…

“All the creatures in this world have dimensions that cannot be calculated.”

Martin Palmer is secretary general of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation.

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评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

科学教育人,不是宗教

环境保护大多受益于被教育了的人,而不是那些被影响了的人。

It's science not religion that educates.

Environmental protection benefits most from educated not influenced people.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论1-证据?

恕我直言,我找不到什么证据可以证明科学发达的社会更加关注环保,又或者,那些历史十足悠久的国家。据我观察,在社会层面上,宗教信仰和科学知识,两者都和环保没有多大关联。

不过,我认为彭马田提出了一些很有意思的观点,有助于对信教人群产生积极的影响。就我看来,文中丝毫没有诋毁或贬低科学的意思。毕竟,彭先生谈论的是气候变化,一个科学到厚颜无耻的概念,并非宗教概念。

Re: comment 1 - evidence?

With all due respect, I see little evidence that scientifically-advanced societies pay more attention to environmental protection. Or indeed heavily secular countries. As far as I can see, there is little correlation either way - on a societal level - between religiosity, scientific knowledge and environmental protection.

However, I think Martin Palmer puts forward some really interesting arguments that could help to influence some religious people in a positive way. There is nowhere in the article that science is denigrated or devalued, as far as I can see. After all, Palmer talks about climate change: an unashamedly scientific, rather than religious, concept.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我的观点

中国古代文学博大精深,用道教来教育我们保护好环境,不是说要拿宗教的迷信和弊端来武装我们的思想,而是利用道教中人类与自然和谐的观点来教导我们,使我们更加意识到人类和自然是和谐统一的,我认为这是我们国家倡导保护环境的一个好方法,至少能带动百姓意识到人类和自然的密切关联。
大雁

My Point of View

The literature in ancient China is rich in content and deep in thought. It taught us to protect the environment by Taoism instead of influencing us by religion's superstitions. Taoism points out that human should stay in harmony with nature, which make us realize that human and nature is harmonious. I believe that it is a good way for our country to call upon people to protect the environment. At least, it can make people realize the tight relationship between human and nature.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

宗教可以改变人们的精神

法律可以改变人们的行为,宗教可以改变人们的精神。消耗资源的根源是人们的欲望,控制欲望使所有宗教的目标之一。道教就有这样一种说法“欲得道,必先静其心”。因此,宗教也是一种在环境保护中起作用的重要因素。

Religion can change humans' heart

Law can change people's behavior; religion can change humans' heart.Controlling lust, which is the source of consumption,is one of goals for all of religions. In Taoism,there is saying "to clear sky,calm your heart first".Therefore, religion is also an important factor which can play a role in environmental protection.
Xiaolin

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不信教,照样环保

我是典型的无神论者!
但我也是忠诚的环境主义者,我一直在比照中生活,我一直在以一种尽可能环保的方式生活。
虽然我不认同任何宗教,但是,我认同所有环保的生活方式

Not religious, but still environmentalist

I am both a typical atheist and a loyal environmentalist. I always try to live in an environmentally-friendly way. I do not believe in any religion but I acknowledge the importance of the ecological lifestyle.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

典型无神论的观点

从无神论的世界观出发,人不过是地球生态系统中的一员,应该减少目前过度的消费,或者增加对生态圈的贡献,使之达到均衡的水平。鉴于人类对自然的认知水平,增加对生态系统的贡献到最优的水平是几乎不可能的,所以可操作的方法是回到茹毛饮血的时代,而这又是与可持续发展的观点矛盾的。

Typical atheistic opinion

In the theory of atheism, human beings are only part of the ecosystem of this planet, thus we should put an end to our current excessive consumption. We should also make efforts to help achieve ecological balance.

Because human beings' knowledge of nature is limited, it is impossible for us to make an optimal contribution to balancing the ecosystem.

This means that the most practical way would be to return to primitive societies. But, if so, it will be contrary to the conception of sustainable development.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

宗教教导我们如何成为一个有尊严的人

我认为,宗教是协助和教导我们如何成为一个有尊严的人,不仅是生活上的点滴,还包括了生活上的思考、责任和付出。

Religion teach us how to be a man with dignity

In my opinion, religion help and teach us to be a man with dignity, not just living, but living with thought, responsibility and credit.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

道德是什么?

道德是人们为了人类社会可持续发展所需遵守的行为准则。它是一种智慧,一种远见!

What is Dao De?

Dao De is the rule which should be abided by for sustainable development of the society. It reflects people's wisdom and foresights.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

外国人能读懂道德经吗?

现在的中国人读懂的都不多,何况道德经要靠悟才能懂

Can foreigners understand Dao De Jing?

Nowadays, few people really understand it, even among the Chinese, let alone the fact that Dao De Jing requires so much in-depth thinking to be understood.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复:外国人能读懂道德经吗?

你可能还会问:中国人能读懂圣经或者莎士比亚么?或者欧洲人能读懂起源于中东的圣经么?没有人能够完完全全的理解任何东西,但是至少他们能对文章的理解作出一些贡献,并且不断带来新的丰富的诠释。看上去上海或伦敦的都市人读道德经没什么意义,因为毕竟他们和老子的世界是完全不同的。

SL

Re: Can foreigners understand Dao De Jing?

You may as well ask: can Chinese people understand the Bible - or Shakespeare? Or whether Europeans can understand the Bible, since it originated in the Middle East. The answer, of course, is that no one can have a full, 'true' understanding of anything, but of course they can contribute a lot to a text's understanding, and bring new, rich readings to texts which are "foreign" to them. It seems pretty irrelevant if someone in modern urban Shanghai or contemporary London is reading the Dao De Jing, after all it's a world that's completely "foreign" to the world of Laozi, in either case. SL