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假如北京的水清纯了

北京的水污染很严重。但是,吕洞庭说,假如北京的水清了,城市居民的“亲水”本能都得到释放,那么河流与水可能受到比污染更严重的迫害。

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人多势众的取水客和钓鱼迷

北京有一些景点现在仍有泉水冒出,这些从地底涌出的神圣之水引发了周围居民的争夺战。他们把家里的各种大型塑料桶备足,腾出专门的时间到泉水边接水,用于饮用和做饭。

北京的八大处公园香山植物园、京东大峡谷、凤凰岭、红螺寺等地,都有这样的“逐水族”争夺神圣的水源。北京市政府在各个水源边贴出公示“不许私自取水”,但没起到任何作用。

钓鱼人比取水人的数量还要庞大得多。从北京南站,有一趟车在清晨六点多开出,在起始站和接下来的丰台站,都会有许多钓鱼迷上车。他们携带着出户外钓鱼所需要的一切辎重,包括马扎、鱼竿、装鱼的网桶等。他们去的地方,是永定河三家店水库以上、官厅水库以下的几个水库。三家店水库是永定河有水的最后一座水库,把水引向北京的永定河引水渠的渠首就在这个水库。

钓鱼迷们往往都互相认识。这些原始身份各异、年龄也参差不齐的人,把他们的鱼竿探遍了几乎北京所有有水的地方。所有有水的地方,人们一定会看到鱼竿,看到旁边在风中安坐着的沉默的钓鱼者。

之所以说“有水的地方”是有根据的,北京城区内的河流,绝大多数地方都仍旧污臭,像护城河,只能靠死水、再生水和雨水来维系其景观。其他的河流,不是身中剧毒而生命垂危,就是“营养过剩”而步履沉重。但不管是什么样的河边,都有钓鱼者安然下钩垂钓。

我每一次都要问:他们钓鱼是为了什么?为了吃?不可能。为了修身养性?似乎也尴尬:坐在臭水河边,用鱼饵诱鱼上钩的办法,与中国传统文化思维的修身养性术似乎都不太合拍。那这些钓鱼迷到底是为了什么?为了生命有个寄托?

北京还有一批“网鱼派”,任何一条河流,只要水浅一点,挽起裤脚就可以下水时,他们就会从家里找出挂网、沾网,或者一切可能在水里网上鱼的用具,想尽一切办法把水里的鱼打捞起来。北京也有人玩电鱼,他们骑着摩托车,带着电鱼器,穿着水裤,到处去电鱼。   

根据北京市水务局2007年2月初的宣布,北京市的污水处理率已经达到90%,提前一年达到“奥运水环境目标”。但实地考察之后,你会发现,北京的水环境并不乐观,缺水、水脏、下游缺少湿地,仍旧是北京水之困。但就是这样水环境,就已经有成千上万的人痴迷于各种猎鱼之乐。

不听劝阻的野泳者

北京有一批自我认同感非常好的野泳者,任何有心人在白天的任何时间,在玉渊潭、长河、昆玉河、什刹海、昆明湖等地都能看到他们。   

玉渊潭的水与昆明湖是相通的,而昆明湖就是京密引水渠的终点。20世纪60年代,修京密引水渠时,由于一些水厂在玉渊潭旁边,因此,专门在计划外修建了昆玉河,以把昆明湖的水通过明渠引到水厂旁边。

玉渊潭的水质在北京的公园里算是好的,玉渊潭公园也因此成为野泳者最常去的地方。在野泳者比较多的地点,公园管理部门立了一个牌子,上面写着自1996年以来这里已经有96人因为游泳而丢失性命。然而,牌子旁边,游泳者们依然笑声朗朗、歌声阵阵。他们还从家里带了一大桶水,以便游泳之后冲净身体。  

“什刹海”所在的“六海”(南海、中海、北海、前海、后海、西海)地区自元朝起,就与北京的都城命运极度相关。近年来,由于发展酒吧业,什刹海更是精心地保证它的水质:一是尽量治污,二是尽量引进新鲜的水。新鲜的水就从长河慢慢地流来。现在的长河,与昆玉河是交汇的,因此,昆玉河的水能够时常对其进行些补给。在什刹海里游泳的人,也从未间断,不管是冬泳、春泳、秋泳还是夏泳。有时候也会出现窒息和溺亡事件,有时候也有人对此皱眉头,但这都挡不住野泳者的热情。

长河在流经西直门时,呈“几” 字型,因此这一段也被称为“转河”。每天转河附近也会有人来游泳。东南护城河的水质虽然一般,可野泳者依然乐此不疲。对于北京的野泳爱好者来说,天气、水质、周围人的不解,都无法阻挡他们的乐趣。

有时候,北京的水脏有个好处,至少让很多有亲水意愿的人,因为厌恶肮脏而远离了河流。假如北京的水变清了,2000多万人都可以在自然界中亲水、戏水的时候,城市内部、周边这些河流的身体,能在拐过第几个弯时,不至于受伤而死?

日益兴旺的鱼虫捕捞业

 

北京的污水排放带动了一个新兴产业:鱼虫捕捞和鱼虫养殖。鱼虫是一种红色的小虫子,家里养鱼的人往往买这种虫子来喂养在缸中游动的精灵。有些人,住处不远就是肮脏的河流,河流越肮脏,鱼虫长得越好。因此,他们会备个兜网,只需把网放入河中捞上几捞,就可以捕到足够自家用的鱼虫。另有一些专门养鱼卖的人,他们会穿上水裤,用整整一天的时间,到河里捞鱼虫。

凉水河原本是北京另一条从西北向东南方向流的自然河流,近年也成了北京的重要排污沟。这条河流出南四环外的小红门污水处理厂之后,由于两岸仍旧有大量的污水未经处理就排入,所以河水越来越脏。但这样正好支撑了鱼虫的养殖业。有人专门在河里捞鱼虫,然后于某个“河心岛”上挖出一块小塘,把鱼虫在里面豢养,鱼虫贩子专门来收购这样的鱼虫,把它运回城区的鱼市场批发给销售商。    

假如北京的水清纯了,现在正兴旺的鱼虫产业,想来也就要萎缩了。

如果北京的水真的变清了,纯了,河流变得有生气了,北京的水体上,会有多少人对其进行更加残酷的伤害呢?每个人都有亲水的本能,每个人都希望河湖和好水能像滋养身体那样滋养心灵。亲水本身没有罪过,有罪的是污染。因此,假如北京的水清纯了,居民可能要压抑与生俱来的“亲水冲动”,或者改变亲水的方式才能真正保持水的清纯。
 

 
 
 

作者:吕洞庭,驻北京记者。

首页图片由Doncorleon

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

真正的问题

有些观点很有趣,但是真正的问题是:是什么在驱使着这些城市的垂钓者?比如说?

Genuine question

Some really amusing points here, and genuine questions: what does drive the urban anglers, for instance?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回答与提问

假如北京的水清纯了,这个工业也就要灭亡了。

你的观点很有趣,但是你能不能告诉我渔场的产鱼量有多大,钓鱼迷们能钓的鱼又有多少?

此外,我想那些在河里钓鱼的人普遍来说比较穷或者不富裕。而那些从渔场买鱼的人想来是来自各个社会群体,但都不穷。

所以,在我看来,减少污染的确会影响到渔场,但只是一点点,至少是不会让他们消亡的。

对那些游泳的人就另当别论了。在外国,我们禁止在某些河流或湖泊里游泳。警方可以对游泳者处以严厉的刑罚。

马努

Response and questions

>If Beijing's rivers were cleaned up, this >industry would die.

Your idea is interesting, but can you tell me what is the amount of fishes produced by fish farming, and what is the amount of fishes that the anglers can fish in the rivers ?

Moreover, I think that anglers who fish in the rivers are generally poor or not so rich. Considering that those people who buy fish from fish farms are from all social categories but not not poor.

So I think that to reduce pollution in the Beijing rivers would indeed affect fish farms, but just a little, but at least it would not lead to the die of them.

For the bathers, it is another problem.
In foreign countries, we forbid bathers to have bath in some lakes or rivers, and those who bath are exposed to severe penalties by the police.

Manu

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

钓鱼不是因为贫穷

中国城市,不仅仅是北京,在城市河道里钓鱼、捕鱼的人都不是因为贫穷。他们捕捉到的鱼也无法销售,甚至无法满足个人的食用。完全是一个为钓鱼而钓鱼的行为。因为要“休闲”,恶劣的环境也不足以满足休闲的需求。
为什么要为钓鱼而钓鱼?这是我多年来一直在琢磨的问题。随着我对城市水系的考察增多,我想最近我对这个问题有了个小答案,那就是人们需要自然界。城市是生态失衡的地方,每个人平均获得的“生态量”非常稀少。对于那些习惯于自然生态中浸泡的人来说,越来越人工化的环境,是无法让人忍受的。这从另一个侧面证明,人们是多么需要美好自然。如果没有了自然,人,活不下去。 吕洞庭

Fishing isn't out of poverty

In Chinese cities, not only Beijing, people don't fish and catch fishes in the rivers out of poverty. The fishes they catch can't be sold commercially. The fishes even won't be enough to feed themselves. It is totally a fishing-for-fishing's-sake behavior. It is because they want to "relax", although the environment is too bad to meet their needs for relaxing.

Why fishing for fishing's sake? This is something I've been pondering over for many years. With my increasing investigation in the water system of cities, I think I arrived at a small conclusion recently, that is, people need nature. Cities are places with imbalanced ecosystem, meaning that per capita "eco-mass" is extremely scarce. For people who are used to indulge themselved in nature, it would be unbearable to find the environment becoming man-made day by day. This has proved that people need the beauty of nature. People cannot live without nature.

Lu Dongting

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

与观念有关

钓鱼也好,野泳也罢,他们未必是受利益的驱使,这都是国人多年以来的生活习惯。靠山吃山,靠水吃水,要改变这个局面,根上还是在观念和意识。
a水

About the way of thinking

Fishing, or bathing, they may not be driven by economic interests. They are habits formed throughout the years. Living on the mountains, live off the mountain. Living by the water, live off the water. (People make use of local resources.) In order to make a difference, fundamentally (we should start from) the way of thinking and awareness.

a Shui

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

治水是为了更好的亲水

诚然,如上所说,人们需要自然界.我在想,难道我们的治水单单是为了治水吗?治水是为了什么?
从某个方面说,人们的亲水性正是体现了治水的重要性;而治水也显示出人们对自然回归的渴望.所以我想说:治水是为了更好的亲水.我们不该反对人们的亲水特性.

Cleaning up waterways for a better love of water

Indeed, as stated above, people need nature. I'm wondering, are we cleaning up the waterways solely for the sake of cleaning up? What do we clean it for? In a way, people's love of water is exactly the reason behind the importance of cleaning up; and cleaning up also reflects people's urge to go back to nature. Therefore, what I want to say is, we are cleaning up waterways for a better love of water. We shouldn't go against people's nature of loving water.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

人当然要亲水,可是城市人,难

以后最大的环保问题就是人的问题。有很多行为未必污染环境,只是生态伤害。我不同意你如此功利的说法。人应该对自然负责。这种负责不仅仅是为了利用。治水是为了对得起自然界,顺便让人的亲水本能得到释放。
但是,城市人是可怜的,由于人口过度密集,任何自然的东西都经不起频繁的扰动,因此。城市人必须压抑、克制自己身上的亲水本能。这是城市人必须要付出的代价。当然,他可以利用节假日,到其他能够承受其伤害的地方亲水。

People surely should love water, but for city residents, it is difficult.

The biggest environmental problem tomorrow would be a people problem. Many behaviors do not necessarily pollute the environment, but do harm to the ecosystem. I'm not agree with your utilitarian way of presentation. People should take ownership of preserving nature, which should be done for reasons more than taking advantage of its resources. Cleaning up waterways is for not feeling guilty in front of nature, and for the release of our loves of water as well. However, city dwellers are pathetic for being part of a too densely populated crowd. Nothing in nature can stand constant disturbances. Therefore, city residents have to oppress and subjugate their loves towards water. This is what must be paid for living in cities. Of course, they can release the love by traveling in holidays to other places, where the damages their love causes is tolerable.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

观点新颖

观点新颖,值得拜读。

original statement

This article has innovative ideas!
It's well worth reading.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

感触

水环境污染当然要治理,不能说因为河水的清洁会引起更大的污染而有所犹豫。为了保持河道的更加清洁,对广大人民进行环保教育才是遏制水污染的最重要途径。

大雁

sentiment

Polluted water must be cleaned up, of course. We cannot hesitate just because that cleaning water leads to more pollution. In order to maintain and improve the cleanness of the waterways, educating the public would be the fundamental way of stopping water pollution.

Da Yan

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

本文英文和中文对照翻译的疑惑

我是对照中文翻译来读英文文章的,觉得英文文章和中文翻译的有许多差别,英文里没有的,中文里都翻译出来了。是我英文不行,还是作者没有把中文中的翻译出来?

Wendy

Question to the content of English-Chinese Translation

I read the English article while referring the Chinese version, and I feel there are many discrepancies between these two versions. Something that does not exist in the English version actually appears in the Chinese one. Was the original article not completely translated? By Wendy

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

好像你搞反了

文章应当是中文写的,翻译成了英文。也许文章的整体意思是差不多的?

山民

Seems you have misunderstood

The article ought to have been written in Chinese, and was then translated into English. Could it be that the overall meaning of the article was not really carried across in the translation? Shanming