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把二氧化碳带回家

中国通过控制二氧化硫在转移大众对实际问题的注意力:那就是该国不断增加的温室气体的排放。冯永锋指出,消费者必须考虑到他们作为个体应对减排作出的努力。

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大概十几年前,中国的空气治污还局限于“工业烟尘”,那时候二氧化硫尚未引起整个社会足够的重视,后来,二氧化硫逐步被提上了安排日程。2006年5月,中国国家环保总局采用“计划单列式”的方法管理五大发电集团,要求其制订脱硫目标责任书并将其层层分解,争取保证在十一五末期的2010年,二氧化硫排放量能够比2005年下降10%。

中国是全世界最大的二氧化硫排放国和第二大的二氧化碳排放国,这两个数据很丢中国人的面子2006年10月,第二届区域空气质量改善会议在北京举行,被邀在会议上发言的全国一些地方的环保局长谈的全是二氧化硫问题。但一些权威专家却提出:现在更重要的是应大力讨论二氧化碳问题,给削减二氧化碳腾出战略空间。这样,二氧化硫的问题反而可能较容易解决。

最近,中科院华南植物园研究员周国逸和他的同事在《科学》杂志上报道了他们研究的最新成果。他们对广东鼎湖山的成熟森林进行长达25年的监测后认为,成熟森林的土壤也具有强大的“碳汇”能力,林下0-20厘米土壤每平方公里每年新增二氧化碳0.61吨。这给中国的天然林保护提供了更强有力的佐证,更打破了成熟森林只能实现“碳平衡”的传统观点。

但这项研究成果能带来什么呢?人们会因此更加重视二氧化碳的危害?当一位英国经济学家提出警告说,地球正在“热化”而不是“暖化”的时候,多少中国人看后会如大难临头般的“心有余悸”?

中科院院士刘东生指出,按照冰期理论,地球的冷暖转化很正常,但是,即使是正常的升温,北方逐步变暖,正当结果是北方的植被覆盖率更高,因为温暖让更多的植物更容易生长。这些植被如果像过去那样遮盖在土壤的表面,中国北方的干旱问题和沙化问题,肯定不会像今天那么严重。

一些古气候学家从极地冰芯、洋底岩芯、黄土沉积层、洞穴、树轮化石等“地质记录”上寻找到了许多证据,证明自工业革命以来,人类的活动造成的二氧化碳排放史,与地球体温的升高史极度重合,而且,目前记录的地球体温是42万年来最高的。有人因此提出了“人类世”的概念,认为人类对地球的地质活动已经产生了严重影响。有人据此又把“人类世”的时间,从工业革命提前到“农业革命”之时,也就是大约1万年,人们开始种植粮食、养殖禽畜的时代,这个时代比以前制造出了更多的甲烷,并且至今没有衰退。甲烷的排放总量虽然比二氧化碳少,但每个甲烷分子的蓄热能力是二氧化碳分子的20倍,因此科学家认为,它对地球体温的升高嫌疑更大。

人类对地球生态犯下的罪行就有了二重性,除了把许多原来应当存放在土壤、冰层、树木身上的二氧化碳,通过工业燃烧活动,大量地推放到空气中之外,人类还大量地砍伐树木,把天然林变为农田,把草原变为农田,把滩涂变成城市,把湿地排干种植农作物;进而,又把农田变为“工业开发区”,把平房变为高楼,原本清新健康的河流里现在只有污水流淌。大气中二氧化碳浓度越来越高的时候,植被的有效覆盖度却越来越低,吸收、化用二氧化碳的能力越来越弱。

许多人把环保的责任归之于政府和企业。其实这是一种责任推卸。中国之所以成为“世界加工厂”,其实是原料便宜、不必为生态负责,也就是资源的定价与环境的定价太低,企业不需要为环境污染和生态伤害付费,也没有能力将环境成本纳入到产品成本中分摊给消费者。产品中既缺乏资源的正确价格,又缺乏环境伤害的修复和补偿价格。政府和企业都是社会的“委托体”,二氧化碳排放是由全体公民的生产和生活行为共同造成的,环保责任绝不仅在生产方,现在起应当强调消费方的责任。从现在起,必须强调个人的消费责任,强调每个人的消费都在制造二氧化碳,因此每个人都责无旁贷,必须为削减二氧化碳出钱出力。只有全体消费者意识到“把二氧化碳带回家”是每个人责任的时候,人们才会给政府交生态税以支持“生态补偿”;通过交纳“资源成本”和生态成本,以提升企业治理环境伤害和生态修复的能力和愿望。因为不管是企业还是政府,其资金和利润,全都来自消费者。

现在有一些意识前卫的团体,开始纷纷高调表态,比如2006年的足球世界杯,哥斯达黎加队就表示要把参加比赛所形成的二氧化碳“购买回家”。有一些很简单的公式能让每个人折算一天中的各类消费行为的二氧化碳排放量。你只需要到这样的网站上,轻点摁键,选择出自己的消费行为,你很快就会得到结果。然后再按国际上通行的“二氧化碳买卖标准价”核算你消费行为应当支付的环境伤害费,你就很容易知道自己又对地球生态欠了多少债务。

交的钱拿来干什么?当然是花在环境改善方面,比如用作种植树木的资金,比如用作维持“保护永久性天然植被者”的生活经费,比如用作替代产业发展,比如用作脱碳技术攻关。总之,只要目标明确,头脑清醒,意志坚定,钱财来源丰盛而长流,中国的二氧化碳问题才可能在最短的时间内受到全社会的重视,并想出诸多的可行性削减方案。

现在是讨论"个人碳责任"和减少个体碳排放的时候了。只注重二氧化硫的减少是完全不够的。

冯永锋,《光明日报》科技部记者

首页图片Patrick Rioux

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

需要有机制来激励和保障"个人碳责任"的实现

除了鼓励大众来提高环保意识之外,还有一个重要的环节来保障"个人碳责任"的实现:那就是好的机制能保证个人加纳的碳"金"能最终用于相关行业的可持续绿化发展而非挪为它用。比如说,交通的碳“金”用于交通的发展。

否则,“个人碳责任”只有最终成为政策制定者向大众“征税”的一大借口,而大众不能以此来从中受益。

所以,减排从根本上来说是一个从上到下(当权者和大众)协同努力的目标,谁都有责任,谁都应该有所作为。

Mechanism needed to promote individual carbon responsibility

In addition to the encouragement for increased awareness to environment protection, a good mechanism is needed to make it possible for individuals to take their carbon responsibilities.

The mechnism should guarantee the money paid by individuals for their carbon emissions will be invested in sustainable and green development of the industries which cause the emissions, instead of being used for other purposes.

As an example, the money individuals pay for their traffic emissions will be injected into the environment-friendly development of transport industry.

Otherwise, personal carbon responsibility will be an excuse for policy makers to impose taxes on the public, who however cannot benefit from the system.

So, basically emission reduction is a target which could only be achieved by coordinated efforts by all parties, from the authorities to the ordinary people. Everybody has the responsibility and a role to play.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

硫碳之争

提倡“个人碳责任”本无可厚非。
但是,做为一个科技记者,以春秋笔法混淆二氧化硫和二氧化碳两个概念,用二氧化硫做陪衬,凸显二氧化碳的环境危害,就让人觉得很不解了。
篇首写到:中国通过控制二氧化硫在转移大众对实际问题的注意力:那就是该国不断增加的温室气体的排放。我很奇怪为什么宣传控制二氧化硫就是转移大众注意力?事实上,个人感觉,对二氧化碳温室效应的宣传远超过了二氧化硫酸雨作用的宣传,而酸雨早在三十年前就已经在中国造成事实危害;二氧化碳的温室效应,目前还在科学论证和预测,当然,不是说可以掉以轻心。
正文第二段,文中指明了会议题目是“第二届区域空气质量改善会议”,区域空气质量的指标,就是我们经常在天气预报中听到的:轻微污染可吸入颗粒物,二氧化硫,二氧化氮等。根本就不管二氧化碳是事嘛,二氧化碳浓度的升高,首要影响到的是全球表面温度,而不是区域空气质量。文中提到的权威,不知道具体怎么讨论了区域空气质量和二氧化碳的关系?!
文中还有几处逻辑混乱的,我就不一一说了,除了最后文章引用的一个与前文脱钩的概念,整篇文章很让人失望。
-Aturen

A conflict between sulphur and carbon

The benefit of an ‘individual carbon responsibility’ has never been in question. However, it becomes incomprehensible to people when a science writer uses guarded language, confuses the notions of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide, and contrasts sulphur dioxide is to the dangers that carbon dioxide poses to the environment. The beginning of the article mentions that China is controlling sulphur dioxide emissions by focusing the masses’ attention to the actual problems. I find it very strange that controlling sulphur dioxide is publicly equalled to focusing the masses attention. As a matter of fact, people’s awareness of sulphur dioxide as cause for acid rain is far greater than carbon dioxide’s role in the greenhouse effect. Moreover, China has already been subjected to the harmful effects of acid rain as long as thirty years ago. Although at present, carbon dioxide’s effect as a green house gas is still scientifically debated and speculated, this does of course not mean it may be treated lightly. The meeting’s theme was mentioned in the second paragraph of the text: ‘Strategic Approaches to Regional Air Quality Management in China’. The quota for such ‘regional air quality’ is often what is heard in our weather forecasts: a slight amount of pollution can cause inhalation of particles, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and so forth. There is fundamentally no mention of issues connected to carbon dioxide, which include its role in raising pH factor, and its major effect on global temperature. But not the quality of air in the region! How can it be that the authorities mentioned in the text are ignorant to the connections between regional air quality and carbon dioxide emissions?! There were other logical inconsistencies in the text which I do not wish to discuss here one by one, except this one: the notions at the very end of the article do not correspond to the preamble set. The entire article is very disappointing. - Aturen

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

给予冯永锋的建议

我建议冯先生多加探讨对科技方面的知识, 因为他看来似乎对碳和硫磺方面的知识有所不足。此外, 我还建议冯先生在未开始撰写文章前首先对第十一届环境保护五年计划有所了解。削减20%能源(碳)的应用是第十一个五年计划的主要目标之一, 比控制二氧化碳的排放目标更为重要。谢谢!

Advice for Yongfeng Feng

May I advise Mr Feng learn more about science and technology, since he has limited knowledge about carbon and sulphur. May I also advise Mr Feng studies the environmental targets of 11th Five-Year-Plan first and then writes his report? Energy (carbon) intensity 20% reduction is one of the key targets of 11th Five-Year Plan, which is even more important than the SO2 target. Thanks!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

走出了小的一步,但需要大的减排举动

阅读了一篇关于中国必须严重对待温室气体排放的问题, 真是令人鼓舞。但是, 我觉得冯永锋低估了这项挑战的规模大小。去年我在这网站所发表的一篇文章, 建议到这将是巨大的挑战 (看” 气候变化政治时代的到来”2006年11月20日) 。个人的责任和志愿的行动是好的出发点。然而, 有效达到减排目标还需要新的管治和责任形式,无论是在中国或世界其它各地。此外, 时不可待,现在就需要行动起来了。卡斯帕•亨德森

A small step. More needed

It is encouraging to read an article saying that China needs to take emissions of greenhouse gases seriously. But I think Yongfeng Feng underestimates the magnitude of the challenges.

In an article published on this site late last year, I suggested these were very large indeed. (see "Time for a politics of climate change" , Nov 20, 2006).

Personal responsbility and voluntary action are a good place to start, but significantly reducing emissions means structural changes that will require new forms of governance and accountability, in China as much as in the rest of the world. And the timescale for action is short.

Caspar Henderson

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

冯永锋的回复

空气中到底有什么,很多人不清楚。
空气中的二氧化碳怎么危害了人类,人类又是怎么把二氧化碳“驱逐”“流放”到空气中的,不少人也不清楚。
探讨环保责任的时候,我们一是直接归咎政府,这很容易;再是归咎企业,这也很容易。
但是,说到底是每个人的问题。
二氧化硫在中国谈得很多,这几年到全国各地采访环保,二氧化碳被谈论的时候,语调的轻松之感,远强于二氧化硫。有很多人,甚至表现出强烈的惊愕,以为我在讨论一个远在天边的问题。
人们更容易感觉到污水、垃圾造成的触目的环境污染,不容易感觉到湿地被排干、天然林被砍伐、海洋被填平、土地功能替换等生态伤害。同样,人们更容易感觉到二氧化硫,而不容易感觉到二氧化碳。
我这文章想说的就是这两个问题:比起二氧化硫,二氧化碳同样紧急;比起政府和企业责任,个人责任更重要。
我们的政府有许多许诺,也有许多规划。可是,中国是一个善于许诺而不关于兑现的国家,因此,没有任何许诺是能够让我相信的。

Reply by Yongfeng Feng

Many people are still unclear on what is actually found in ‘air’. Quite a number of people are also unclear on how carbon dioxide in the air harms humanity, or how humanity may ‘drive out’ or ‘remove’ this carbon dioxide from the air. We tend to put blame immediately on the government when discussing environmental responsibility. This is very simple to do. To put blame on the industry is also very convenient. But in fact, it is a problem that lies with the individual.
There has been much talk about sulphur dioxide in China. All the news coverage on environmental protection in the past few years has been very tentative on the issue of carbon dioxide emissions. It did not emphasise carbon dioxide nearly as much as sulphur dioxide. Many people have even reacted with deep astonishment. They are under the impression I am discussing a very distant issue. People find it easier to understand the problem of polluted waters, and visible pollution through waste. They find it hard to sympathise with other problems such as marshes drying up, the disappearance of rainforests, rising sea levels, harm to wildlife, problems of soil recovery etcetera. Similarly, people find it easier to understand the threats of sulphur dioxide to those of carbon dioxide.
I spoke about the following two problems in this article: the rise of carbon dioxide as a more pressing issue than sulphur dioxide; and individual responsibility as more important than government and industrial responsibility.
The Chinese government has many commitments and laid out many programs. But, China is also a country that is very good at pledging commitment without implementing the required measures. Therefore, no pledge for commitment would be able to instill faith in me.

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匿名 | Anonymous

限制与共有

“限制与共有”(www.capandshare.org)是一个在英爱两国正在进行的活动。它是在大多经济及政治学者所知道的“收缩及集中”提议的基础上发展起来的。“收缩”的意思,就是碳排放量的限度年益减低到国际社会协定的水平。“集中”的意思,就是给各国分配按其人口确定的许可证(许可证是指一种用化石燃料及排放碳气的权利)。按照“限制与共有”提议,我们应该进一步 扩展“收缩与集中”的方法,将许可证的权利给世界上全部的成年人口,而不给国家政府。简而言之,为了预防温室效应,“限制与共有”既作为一个方法,又作为一个活动。它的基本原则即:在世界将超过欧盟规定的不能高于前工业时代温度平准的温度目标之前,每个人都应有权利共有地球上越来越少的碳排放容量。在理论上,这个方法将限制世界排放量在目前的水平上,然后按温度目标的比率年益减低。每年,世界上全部的成年人口将共有排放重量。每个人受到证书来表示其个人的排放碳气的权利。然后,受证书的人通过银行系统将其权利卖给石油、煤碳及汽油生产者,而且这些生产者就集中证书足以补充每吨售卖的碳排放。系统的大优点,就是给每个人提供起码一部分赔款来补充…国际协议即使作为最理想的方式,任何国家也可以执行这个方式来推进可再生资源的投资。我是“未来在我们手中国际网络”(FIOH)(www.fiohnetwork.org)的协调者。FIOH不赞同持续发展与经济增长不能调和的观点。许多人不认为可再生资源有潜力取代化石汽油并仍然维持目前的经济增长率。根据化石燃料行业中著名的专家,石油已经达到了其最高的价格,而且汽油好几年以后才会达到其最高的价格(然而,斯特恩报告不同意这个观点)。难道核动力及煤炭不能补充这个缺乏吗?从中国最近的趋向及美国政府的发布来看,这颇有可能性。所有的取代燃料的方法都有严重的问题,在“限制与共有”及气候公司(Climate Corporation) 的网站上正在进行讨论。请您发表观点。如果您同意“限制与共有”提议,请参与我们的活动。 麦克 托马斯

Cap and Share

Cap and Share (www.capandshare.org)is a campaign, currently being run in the UK and Ireland, that has been developed from from the Contraction and Convergence proposal which is now widely understood by many economists and politicians. Contraction means that there is an internationally agreed cap and then year on year reductions, in greenhouse gas emissions down to an agreed level. Convergence means a sharing of the permits (right to use fossil fuels and hence emit greenhouse gases)to countries according to their populations. The Cap and Share proposal extends this concept by saying that this right should be allocated equally to all the world's adult citizens rather than governments.

Put simply:
Cap and Share is the name of both an approach (cap and share approach) and a campaign (Cap and Share) to arrest climate change. It is based on the belief that every human being has a right to an equal share of the Earth's very limited capacity to accept further greenhouse gas emissions before the temperature target adopted by the European Union, a maximum 2 degree Celsius rise in the Earth's average temperature over that in pre-industrial times, is exceeded.

It wants global emissions to be capped at their current level and then brought down year by year at a rate consistent with achieving the temperature target. Each year, the emissions tonnage involved would be shared equally amongst the Earth's adult population, each of whom would receive a certificate for their individual entitlement.

The recipients would then sell their entitlements through the banking system to oil, coal and gas producers who would need to acquire enough of them to cover the carbon dioxide emissions from every tonne of fossil fuel they sold.

One great advantage of the system is that it provides everyone with at least partial compensation for the higher cost of fossil fuels that limiting their availability would necessarily involve.
------------
Whilst an international agreement would be the ideal, any individual country could take the initiative to introduce such an approach and help drive investment in renewables.
I am the coordinator for the Future in Our Hands International Network (www.fiohnetwork.org). FIOH challenges the idea that sustainable development can ever be compatible with economic growth. There are considerable doubts about the potential for renewables to substitute for fossil fuels and achieve current levels of economic growth. Prominent experts in the fossil fuel industry maintain that peak oil has already occured and the natural gas peak may not be many years away (this does not appear to be accepted in the Stern Review, however). Will nuclear power and coal be promoted to fill the gap? Current trends in China and political statements from the USA suggest this possibility.
There are profound problems associated with all the substitutes for fossil fuels and these are currently being debated on the Cap and Share and the Climate Cooperation web site to which it is linked. We invite you to contribute to the debate. If you agree with the Cap and Share proposal, please join the campaign.

Mike Thomas