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在限碳的世界中交易

温室气体的减排要求我们所有人都要改变自己的行为方式。但是,怎么来做呢? 马特•弗瑞斯科特试图利用市场机制来改变我们个人的经济模式并以此来拯救我们的地球。
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将碳排放作为商品进行贸易的想法开始于京都。现在碳排放市场已经成型,对于这个金融世界的新成员,无论个人、产业界还是政府,所有层面都怀着强烈的兴趣。

碳排放是一种非同寻常的商品。它唤起了人们极大的热情,并且和社会和环境等领域联系在一起,而过去它们从未和资本领域发生过联系。但是,通过碳市场,我们开始看到地球的未来生态被标上价,作为商品进行交易。

尽管用这种办法来解决气候变化危机看上去似乎冷酷无情,但是西方的环保团体都越来越看好碳排放市场的潜力。这是为什么呢?世界权威气候学家指出,我们必须在未来的十年里大规模地减少碳排放。在如此之短的时间之内,我们只能充分利用手上最大的工具——市场。

碳排放交易是《京都议定书》所批准的各国用于减少温室气体排放的机制之一。《京都议定书》创立了“清洁发展机制”(CDM),使得一个地方所节约出来的排放量能够被卖给另一个地方。结果,有许多通过认证的减排项目开始投入,大多数在发展中国家。这些项目通常是诸如风能之类的可再生能源。人们对这些项目仔细察看,以免“重复计算”,同时,它们也被出售到某一个可以进行配额买卖的碳市场中去。

碳市场的结果是,其环境影响和社会影响交织在一起,《京都议定书》也由于无法满足世界的减排要求而备受指责。的确,全球的排放还在不断上升,几乎没有几个国家敢说自己遏制住了这个趋势。但是,自从京都会议以来,大家学到了许多东西,关于减排的认识率直线提高。

向欧盟学习

欧盟已经从2005年1月开始实施《排放贸易体系》(EU ETS),第一阶段到2007年12月结束。其第二阶段恰好与《京都议定书》中规定的第一阶段重合,即从2008年到2012年,议定书要求签字发达国家届时要将其排放比1990年的水平减少5%。一吨二氧化碳当量的价格最高的时候超过了30欧元,而现在则在12欧元上下浮动。

这是一个上限与交易”的体系。在这个体系里,排放者们都被赋予一定的信用配额——也就是允许其排放特定数量二氧化碳的配额,总配额不能超过上限——允许其排放的总量。《排放贸易体系》包括了欧盟国家温室气体排放总量的大约40%,如造纸、采矿和能源等几个工业部门。任何上限与交易体系的基本逻辑都是:市场会找到最便宜的储备。处于该体系下的任何组织,如果超过了其配额,有两个选择:要么到市场上购买更多的排放权利,要么提高能效减少自身排放。根据市场理论,无论选择哪一边,都能在其限定的“碳预算”之内做出经济上最理性的决定。

全球影响

许多项目都位于中国和印度,这两个经济快速增长的国家为确实可行的减排提供了很多机会,因为其能源基础设施的发展步伐太快了。碳市场使清洁可再生能源技术的投资获得了财政上的支持,这使得低碳发展对中印等国更有吸引力。随着碳市场的扩张,也出现了更大的机会来推动减排工作。

在许多地方,事实都证明碳交易是一个成功的机制,尽管有一些人批评它是一种传统的资本主义手段。但是,由于现在没有更好的选择,这个批评也就销声匿迹了。因为减排的迫切需要,一个强大的碳市场能够为世界上各大金融和文化中心提供一条发挥创造潜力的途径,努力解决温室气体排放问题。

你——新的作用因素

目前,英国44%的排放量被直接分配给个人,但是个人目前还不是碳市场的主体。在全球化的碳市场上,减排的主动权并不总掌握在政府手里。有些企业和业界意识到气候变化对他们及其家庭的未来威胁之大,自身就会变成驱动者。

作为一个有觉悟的公民,我们可以购买得到认证的排放量,但不要转手倒卖,这样会使碳从市场上流失,从而抬高价格。但是,RSA认为这还远远不够。我们正在关注着一个全新的办法——个人碳交易,我们希望这可以成为一种快速、有效而公平的办法,平衡经济发展与控制碳排放的需求。这是一个全新的事物。

现在,欧盟排放交易体系中的新行为者还寥寥无几,只有代表了欧盟二氧化碳排放总量45%的12,000个企业。RSA设想英国每一个个人都成为碳市场的主体,如果这个机制成功的话,欧盟将近5亿人口中的每一个成员也能成为主体。

到时将会出现这样的情况:英国政府把国家排放总量的44%按人头均分给每个成年公民(通过购买燃料和电力),剩下来的56%将被拍卖给政府和产业界。

这56%的运作方式和欧盟排放交易体系差不多。但是,现在个人也是同一市场的主体,如果他们的排放量小于配额,就可以把排放权利卖给那些排放量大于配额的人。

减少发展对排放的负面影响

那么,如果每一个人都要在财政上对其排放负责,情况会怎么样呢?首先,我们会弄清自己的配额是如何被消耗掉的:是不是开着大油耗的汽车;是不是没随手关灯;暖气是不是调得太热;是不是飞行次数过多?如果有了一个强烈的经济刺激,并将个人推向市场,我们认为将会实现从浪费到低碳生活方式的迅速转化。人们将会寻求低碳产品和服务,以节约排放配额。一旦有了对低碳产品的需求,企业家们反过来就会开发和制造这些产品。

为了和气候变化斗争,必须每年缩减碳预算。随着预算的缩减,达到更低排放量所需的商品和服务业将应运而生,一个新的低碳文化也将继续推动这一变化的发展。

碳市场的益处还有其他方式的体现。它可以促进公众健康和能源安全,并且可以切实地将收缩与收敛模式(Contraction and Convergence model)引入到这一机制中来。因此,尽管开始时看起来像是一个具有强硬市场经济内核的概念,但最终景象却变得大不相同,碳市场的诉求是一个强大而公正的社会。


马特•弗瑞斯科特是“碳限制项目”的总监RSA全称“皇家艺术、制造和商业促进会”,致力于通过“碳限制项目”促进围绕个人碳交易的讨论。碳限制项目将持续到200812月,正在实施一个包括研究、公众讨论和引导等内容的规划。相关网站:www.rsacarbonlimited.org

首页图片Marek Futrega

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匿名 | Anonymous

建设创新型国家

建设创新型国家,应该具有创新型国家的气概!

地球空间有限,地球资源有限,地球承载环境污染的能力有限,在这种情况下,如何实现社会主义物质财富的极大丰富?如何实现共产主义?如何构建和谐社会的和谐发展?

中国,具有世界一流的科技人员数量,却没有世界一流的科学技术全面发展,为什么?归根结底,科研体制、科研机制的落后,是关键。

政策落后,时至今日,仍然是严重困扰如何开拓中国科学技术全面发展道路的根本问题。

橘子洲头111

To construct an innovative country

To construct an innovative country, we should have the spirit of innovation!The space of the globe is limited, the resources is limited and its capability to carry on the environmental pollution is limited as well. Under these circumstances, how to realize the maximized richness of socialist material fortune? How to realize communism? How to construct a harmonious society and have a harmonious development? China has the first-class scientific and technological researchers; but we do not have a complete development of all the top scientific technologies in the world. Why? Fundamentally, it is because of the backward of scientific mechanism.
A lagbehind policy, up to today, still remains as the fundamental issue as how to explore a full development road of China's science and technology.
Juzizhoutou 111

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匿名 | Anonymous

上限与交易

马特弗瑞斯科特的文章描写一种扩展欧洲 (ETS)的方式。不过,我们一些欧洲人对ETS持着格外批评的态度,而且更想用另一种体系。比如,我们不喜欢ETS给世界上化石燃料消费最大的公司所有权来利用地球大气为免费的碳吸存(carbon sink)。因为碳许可证拥有市场价格,给公司提供免费的许可证,就相当于奖励最大的污染者。如今,由于地球大气作为一个缺货而且必须由我们分配地利用,大气在市场上便得到一种缺货价格。但是,谁得到这个缺货价格的收入呢?谁所有它呢?
在碳市场上,我们正在划定全球共享空间的界限;而且,正如几个世纪前欧洲共用土地的情形,共享空间的所有权同样属于社会中权力最大的利益集团。但是,如果个人享有用地球大气为碳吸存的权利,那么,这个权利肯定就是我们共同的所有权,而并不是世界上最大的污染者的!为此,有不同的计划可行, "上限与交易" 就是其中一个方式。"上限与交易",即一种简单的限制碳排放的体系,给全国公民提供增补的收入来赔偿减少化石燃料将引起的日益增高的价格。无论在国家、大陆,还是全球, 所有的范围内都可以实行,并且与其它以限制农业、采伐森林及垃圾掩埋法造成的排放为目标的项目并用。
这个体系的具体程序如下:为了实行这个体系,“上限 A” 政府便给国家经济的碳排放量规定一个上限。上限每年降低,如此逐步地降低到得再也不引起气候变化的程度。还有,政府制定立法来使所有的用煤、汽油、石油等化石燃料的公司,不论是生产者还是进口者,必须得到足以赔偿其售卖燃料造成的碳排放的许可证。需要许可证的,只有这些供应能源的公司;能源的消费者,不管是家庭、公司还是公用事业企业,都不需要。然后,政府会给每个公民分配一个按每年确定的排放量上限计算的许可证,以便分配排放的责任。
我们收到许可证的人,就将它卖给银行、邮局等提供最实惠价格的金融机构。然后,这些机构将许它卖给化石燃料的供应者, 而且他们按规定必须将它交给政府的检察员。每年,收到许可证的人会给我们个人增补收入来赔偿碳排放日益增高的价格。随着上限越来越低,得到许可证的竞争就越来越激烈,而且我们售卖许可证的收入也越来越高。

Cap and Share

The article by Matt Prescott describes one way of extending the European ETS system. However some of us in Europe are very critical of the ETS system - and would prefer another system. For example we don't like the way the ETS gives ownership rights to use the earth's atmosphere as a carbon sink free to the largest fossil fuel using companies on what is called a "Grandfathering basis". (Where the proportional allocation of carbon permits is based on the proportions of previous emissions by the big polluters). Because carbon permits have a market value, giving the permits to the companies for free is effectively rewarding the biggest polluters. Now that the use of the earth's atmosphere is a scarce good and must be rationed the use of the atmosphere gains a scarcity value in the market. But who gets the rent from this scarcity value? Who owns it? What is happening is in the carbon market is the enclosure of a global commons - and like the enclosure of the common lands in Europe several centuries ago ownership is being handed to the most powerful interests in society. Yet surely, if the right to use the atmosphere of the Earth as a carbon sink belongs to anyone it belongs to all of us equally - rather than belonging to the planet's biggest polluters!

Schemes can be organised in different ways. One alternative is the "Cap and Share" approach. Cap and share is a simple system to put a cap on the emissions from fossil fuels in a way that provides a supplementary income for all citizens to compensate them for the rising costs that reduced fossil fuel use will mean. It is a system that can be applied at a national, continental and global level, along with other initiatives to limit emissions from agriculture, deforestation and landfill. It would work like this:

the cap

A government would apply the system by imposing a cap on the greenhouse gas emissions for which its economy was responsible. The cap would be tightened each year so that the emissions eventually fell to a level at which they were no longer contributing to climate change. Legislation would be passed requiring all companies introducing fossil fuels - coal, oil and gas - into the economy, whether as actual producers or importers, to obtain enough permits to cover the carbon emissions from the fuels they sold. Only these energy suppliers would need permits. Fuel users, whether families, companies or utilities would not.

the share

The government would then share out the emissions by issuing permits covering the total amount it had decided to allow in a year to all its citizens equally. We, the recipients, would then sell them to whichever bank, post office or other financial institution offered the best price and the institutions would sell them on to the fossil fuel suppliers who would be required to surrender them to government inspectors. The sale of the coupons every year would provide all of us with a supplementary income to offset the rising cost of fossil fuel use. The tighter the cap became, the fiercer the competition for permits would be and the more we would get when we sold them.

http://www.capandshare.org/

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匿名 | Anonymous

有关常识的新科学

有关常识的新科学
1971年,社会学家和犯罪学家汤姆斯 麦蒂森提出,一个新的概念、选择或者行动,如果它是能够改变社会基础的,就应该对现有的社会基础具有一个反作用的效果,或者竞争的效果。因此,他认为一个改变社会的理念应该是在现有系统之外的,而不是和现有的社会现实交织在一起。这其中,最重要的事情就是避免那已经被现有体系所吸纳的理念和行动,例如在本身就会改变的发展进程或者社会基础上谈改革。近几年,许多学者对已经知晓的问题提出各种观点,但是他们关心的却是经济改革,导致经常在经济学的问题中引进一个道德层面去反映生态的可持续发展和社会公平。

经济的增长于竞争,贪婪和赌博。具有反作用的概念应该是一个新科学(姑且称之为社会学说)需要提出一个正确的框架,以次用其中的理念和行动把人性问题带离现有的灾难。首先,新科学的任务应该针对能源和涉及所有生产活动(从收集原材料到消费者)中温室效应的废气排放。同时,动物关护、公平贸易和其他涉及人权和道德以及可持续发展的问题,也应该放在这个框架中,为大众提供信息,并计算出经济和政治决策中的“真正”成本,而不仅仅是经济成本。这一框架应该有一套本质上不同的价值观点,包括共享、合作、共同参与和诚实。

全球化需要被遏制,新的重心应该放在本地贸易和为了本地需要而进行的本地生产上。政府应该鼓励节约能源,鼓励大家就近度假,遏制超市的发展和构建本土货币体系以遏制目前通过高端银行运行的破坏性的投资。政策和教育应该能够说服人们放弃汽车、而采用走路、自行车者和公共交通的交通方式。

在方式方法上,第一步应该针对二氧化碳的排放,依据全球共同机构制定的“压缩和合并”的原则,在国家间根据人口进行分配燃料的使用量,以达到逐步减少消耗量的目的。另外,在前面的一个评述中所提及的“遏制和分享”运动也应该包括进来。

A NEW SCIENCE OF COMMON SENSE

A new science of common sense
In 1971 the sociologist and criminologist, Thomas Mathiesen, contended that a new idea, or choice of action, if it is to contribute to fundamental change, must have a ‘counteractive’ or ‘competing’ effect on what is fundamental in the existing system. He argues convincingly that a socially transforming idea must not be woven into what exists but must be ‘alien to the system’. The most important thing is to avoid ideas and actions that can be absorbed by the system, such as reforms without any effect whatsoever on the basic structure or the course of development that is to be changed. Many academics have in recent years put forward ideas to address the problems already outlined in this booklet, but they are usually concerned with the reform of economics. Often the basis of the arguments is to bring a new ethical dimension into economics that better reflects ecological sustainability and social justice.

Economic growth is driven mainly by competition, greed and gambling. The counteractive concept suggests that a new science (the name suggested here is ‘socionomics’ ) is needed to provide a proper framework for ideas and actions that will lead humanity away from the disastrous course it is currently set upon. The first task of this new science would be to establish both the ‘embodied’ energy and the greenhouse gas emissions involved in all items of production from the gathering of the raw materials to the consumer.
Animal concern, fair trade, and other matters related to human rights and ethical and sustainable development, could also be brought under this framework to provide information to the general public and inform economic and political policies to determine the ‘true cost’ of products, not just the financial cost. This new science would be driven primarily by a different set of values - sharing, co-operation, fellowship and honesty.
Globalisation needs to be stopped and a new emphasis placed on local trade and local production for local needs. Governments should, for example, provide incentives for energy saving and taking holidays closer to home, prevent the construction of supermarkets and promote local currency systems to reduce the amount of damaging investment currently operated through the main high street banks. Incentives and education should also be directed towards persuading people to give up their cars and switch to a combination of walking, cycling and public transport.
A first step in the counteractive approach could be applied to carbon trading and based on the principle of ‘contraction and convergence’ outlined by the Global Commons Institutute which proposes that tokens to use fossil fuels be distributed to countries according to their populations within gradually diminishing cap on the amount of fossil fuels. An extension of this principle is described in the Cap and Share campaign in the previous comment.

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匿名 | Anonymous

请出示证据

请提供一个证据说明全球气候变暖是由人类制造的二氧化碳排放所造成的。

evidence please

please provide a proof that global warming is caused by human-made carbon emissions!