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幻灯片:生态农业,大众还是贵族?

孟斯拜访了中国东部的一个实验性农场,了解在那里实行的自然的耕种方式。她用拍回来的照片,向大家讲述农业改革的梦想与现实的距离。

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2008年末,中国山东费县传出一则“剧毒花生”的新闻,花生中的残留农药致人死亡。此消息后被官方查证为谣言。人们继续放心大胆地食用花生,但花生种植中的严重问题并没得到解决:使用剧毒农药和农用薄膜

种植花生的农民知道,许多因素能让花生减产,比如金龟甲幼虫(当地群众称之为“大牙”)。对于大多数农民,应对减产的方法只有使用毒性够强的农药,比如国家早已禁用的“六六六”。此外,为了保水保肥和防杂草,农用薄膜(农膜)被广泛用于花生及一些其它作物种植。但由于收集困难,绝大多数废旧农膜使用完即被丢弃在土地上,造成土壤污染。

“我们的农业生产,切断了生态系统循环。我们现在要做的,则是让它重新回归并利用生态系统的自然循环。” 中国科学院植物研究所首席研究员兼中外对话的专栏作家蒋高明这样说道。

自2007年起,蒋高明带领自己的研究团队,在山东平邑县蒋家庄租用农民40亩耕地,建立“弘毅生态农场”,开展生态农业试验示范研究,开始探索具有经济竞争力的生态农业模式,试验生产中国最“纯正”的有机食品。

生态农业的概念兴起于欧洲,至2000年,已有141个国家开始或已经开始发展生态农业。目前从生态农地占农业用地面积的比例来看,欧洲国家普遍较高。大多数亚洲国家的生态农地面积较小。

近年来,随着居民生活水平的提高和环境意识的加强,中国也开始追赶“生态农业”、“有机食品”的时尚。然而高昂的价格和认证的良莠不齐,让许多消费者购买有机食品既不舍得,又不踏实。

“我们全面停止了农药、除草剂、化肥、农膜、添加剂,根本不用转基因,验证生态学在维持农业产量、提高经济效益中的作用。短短3个年头,生态学的强大威力就显示出来了。”蒋高明说。

蒋高明做生态农业并非赶时髦。事实是,他觉得如果中国的农业再不走上生态之路,日益贫瘠的土地将失去最后的肥力。如同许多经济活动未把环境效益计算在内,土地的效益也被农业生产长期忽略。农膜、化肥、农药、杀虫剂,使土壤由“黑”变“白”。

然而完全不用农药,真的行吗?农药自发明以来就在防治病虫害上起着不可替代的作用。中国用世界百分之七的耕地养活了五分之一的人口,这“奇迹”里面,包含每年120万吨以上的农药使用量。

“老百姓种花生施加剧毒农药花费的费用,每亩约50元,但依旧控制不了虫害。而我们控制虫害的成本远低于剧毒农药。”蒋高明称。在弘毅生态农场不大的试验田 里,两盏发出特殊光谱的脉冲诱虫灯,替代了农药和杀虫剂。“诱虫灯不能消除全部昆虫,但每年坚持诱捕,会达到生态平衡,即这个物种还在,但不再对作物造成 危害。”

农场最多时每只灯每晚可捕获4.5公斤各种“害”虫。但由于生活习性的原因,这里一年只有70天左右能捕到虫子。今年,弘毅生态农场总共收获了100多斤富含蛋白质的幼虫做饲料补充。

此 外,农场用人工或割草机除草,来喂养蝗虫和淡水鱼,而不使用除草剂。这两项收益可以提供两个农民全年就业,等于蚂蚱和鱼给农民发了除草的工钱。农场饲养的 120头肉牛利用秸秆做饲料,牛粪进入沼气池,提取能量供应农场使用;腐熟的牛粪和沼渣沼液还田,用牛来生产优质有机肥料。

蒋高明的研究认为,中国化肥使用总量的70%都未能进入农产品而白白浪费,他认为中国农业生产方式中存在严重的化肥施用过量,而生态农业概念能够将中国农业长期以来的“高投入、高产出、高污染”改为“低投入、高产出、无污染”。

靠提高土壤肥力和生物方法生产的有机食品,能比普通农产品成本更低么?农场的有机粮食和蔬菜在市场上的价格是普通粮食和蔬菜的3~5倍,而山东平度的韭菜和芹菜卖到每斤20元。

然而有人认为,蒋高明提出的“低成本”是可能的,这个人是日照益康有机农业科技发展有限公司董事长战培林。他的公司生产的微生物有机肥,是用海带加工中的废渣和从日本引进的微生物菌类发酵而成,试验证明并不逊色于化肥。但他认为,国家在化肥上的补贴和优惠政策削弱了生物肥料的市场竞争力。

不过对于蒋高明的生态农场,战培林觉得生产与市场的对接仍是问题。“一旦产量扩大,就会发现市场还很小,除非用于深加工,提取动物蛋白。”参观完蝗虫饲养棚 的战培林说。他认为单一农户走多元化农场的模式意味着较高的管理成本和营销成本,而在食品安全的法制和审查水平仍有待提高的现状下,改善中国农产品质量, 唯有走企业化道路,靠管理和企业信誉解决农产品无可追溯性的问题。

农场正帮助农民蒋高钰尝试林下养鸡,利用被称为“生物位”的植株间隙放养肉鸡。“理论上讲,生态农场的规模越大,生态效益和经济效益就突出,管理的成本就越小,带动的就业人数就越多。”蒋高明说。他的近期目标是发动老百姓拿出100亩做有机农业;远期目标是将整村的1000亩地连同村落做成生态农庄。

除了花生,弘毅农场里还种植有近20种有机粮食和蔬菜,如小麦、玉米、大豆、绿豆、韭菜、芹菜、土豆、葱、蒜等等。这些过去农民家里用普通种植方法收获的作 物,被贴上“有机”的标签,定义为标准最严格、质量最高的农产品,明确要求生产中绝对禁用农药、化肥、添加剂及人工合成物质。似乎在经历了化学添加剂带来 的增产喜悦和过量使用带来的担忧,面对日益变质的土壤,中国农业的探路者们下了决心,与化学添加剂彻底绝缘。

虽然第一茬玉米因为“芽涝”而产量不佳,但蒋高明和他的学生仍怀有很大信心。他们认为,发展有机农业需要耐心和不断尝试。正是“急功近利”,使得农业长期忽视了“养地”的重要作用,换来的是被化肥、农药和农膜污染的土壤,板结、贫瘠、不可持续。

蒋高明认为,弘毅生态农场的“标杆”意义远高出其经济意义。然而农民不能靠信心维生。只有可靠的示范和收入的刺激,才能说服他们改变传统的耕作方式。

许多农业专家正在同蒋高明一道艰难尝试,期待以生态方式拯救土地和农业。中国农业科学院主持的国家863计划“新型多功能生物肥料关键技术研究与新产品开发”的课题已进行了七年。袁隆平,这位79岁的中国“杂交水稻之父”,盼望到他90岁时,实现超级杂交稻亩产1000公斤的目标。而现在,对于13亿人而言,不但吃饱,而且吃的健康,还不那么容易。


孟斯,中外对话北京分部
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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论10

现在城里的小资和白领,吃大米白面的变少,也不意味着他们消耗的粮食少。他们吃的肉也来自粮食啊

Response to Comment 10

Yuppies and white collars in cities might be eating less rice and wheat, but that doesn't mean they're actually consuming less grain. They're still eating meat, and that meat comes from grain!
(Translated by Jacob Fromer)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

无为农业

我发现这篇文章很有意思,因为正好我在读一本关于农业的书。书中不仅提到使用完全有机的方法生产,甚至模仿自然循环的过程。这种生产方式对劳动力需求很低(因此也更便宜),对土地环境的健康也很有益。该书的作者(在此方面的实践已经有30多年)认为,如果有机农作方法得当,成本会更低得多。
非有机的农业生产方式之所以便宜,是因为消费者未被要求为环境成本付费——如果你想对环境成本了解更多,可以看前面的一篇马军的文章。

Do-nothing farming

This article interests me because I just read a book about farming that doesn't just use purely organic methods but actually mimics natural cycles of nature. This type of farming is much less labor intensive (therefore cheaper) and promotes the environmental health of the land. The author (who had been practicing for more than 30 years) says that if done right organic farming should be much cheaper.

Inorganic farming is only cheap now because consumers have not been charged for the environmental costs - if you want to know more about environmental costs, see Ma Jun's article above this one.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论1

现在还在试验阶段,几乎没有形成规模供给市场,许多食品的生长周期都要一年。

Re: Comment 1

Organic farming is still in an experimental phase, and to all intents and purposes does not take place on a scale large enough to supply the market; many foodstuffs take a year to grow.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

大众还是贵族?

我觉得抛开“有机”、“生态”种种标签,农业专家们的目标应该不仅仅是为市场提供又一种高质量的贵族食品(即使成本下降,产量仍然无法满足大众需求),而是为中国危险的农业生产方式寻找具有普遍意义的稳步转型之路。这比探讨有机食品的小市场意义更大,挑战也更大。

The masses or the rich few?

I think that aside from various kinds of "organic" and "ecological" tag, the objective of agricultural experts should not just be to provide the market with yet another kind of high- quality food for the rich few (even if the cost falls, the quantities produced will still not be enough to satisfy the demand of the general public), but to search for a general- purpose, steady way to change the course of dangerous Chinese agricultural production methods. This is more meaningful than discussing the small market for organic food, and the challenges it presents are also greater.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

请孟斯验证

孟斯:您好!请君到新华网三农论坛上看帖,标题是,请看:大旱之年旱地不灌溉也能高产。推广“非灌溉化治理耕地干旱,水土流失,发展高效农业“发明专利模式,能解决中国诸多生态,环境,三农,水,水治理,农业用水,粮食安全等等难题。我己进行了河南,甘肃,陕西,山西等省进行了十多年实验,均成功。河南省洛宁县国税局雷新周[email protected]

Mengsi, Please Review

Hello, Mengsi! Please visit Xinhua News website's 'San Nong' discussion forum and read the post titled: A Year of Drought Without Irrigation Can Still Have High Yields. Promoting the "trend toward non-irrigation policy in arable lands stricken with drought, soil erosion, and developing highly-efficient agricultural systems" patented method; it provides solutions to several of China's ecological, environmental, 'san nong', water, water policy, agricultural water, and food safety problems in addition to many more difficult issues. I have conducted work for more than ten years in the provinces of Henan, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Shanxi among others.
Lei Xinzhou, National Tax Bureau, Luoning County, Henan Province, [email protected]
Comment translated by Clay Baylor

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态农业的关键

看评论二与评论三,我认为都不妥当。生态农业的关键,既是组织上的,更是技术上的!生态农业不是不可能在中国推开,而是能大面积在中国推开。问题是中科院的拿出的研究结果是一个技术乌托邦!玩玩儿也就完了,白白浪费纳税人几个钱。
生态农业不可能普及到千家万户,也不能被允许普及到那个程度,因为我们还要考虑粮食安全?非也!问题是中科院拿不出适合千家万户普及的模式!

Key to Ecological Agricultre

I don't think the second and third comments are right. The key to eco-agriculture is both organization and, to a greater degree, technology! It's not that eco-agriculture cannot take root in China or across a large area of the country. The problem is that the results of research conducted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences is a technological utopia! The game is over and the time of squandering taxpayers' dollars is finished.

Some argue that it's not possible for eco-agriculture to become widespread, and it cannot be allowed to spread to such a degree because food safety has to be considered. But it's not true. The problem is that the Chinese Academy of Sciences is unable to come up with a suitable method to make it more widespread.

Comment translated by Clay Baylor

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态农业可以是贵族

杂交水稻亩产1000公斤,这已经快到极限了,下一步要再想增产,目前看来也只有转基因一条路了。

今天在新浪上看到一个对袁隆平的采访,头版头条。他说:“对转基因食品不能一概而论...如果转基因抗病虫的水稻要人体作实验,我将第一个报名。”
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2010-03-05/065019793549.shtml

假设我们说转基因是大势所趋了,那么生态农业当然可以是“贵族”的。给消费者选择的权利是一方面,另外产品生产、流通等等过程的透明化也很重要。有些消费者就是要有机的、要生态的,那么哪怕这些作物没有办法像转基因一样高产,成本大、价格高,只要有人愿意消费,又有何不可。

Organic Farming Can Be For The Wealthy

Hybrid rice paddies are producing yields of 1000 kilograms, which is already close to the upper limit. If the next step in increasing production is to be taken, it currently seems like transgenic engineering is the only path left.

Today, I saw an interview with Longping Yuan on Sina, on the top of the front page. He said " Transgenic foods cannot be discussed as if they are all the same... If transgenic rice engineered to be resistant to insects and disease needs to be tested on human subjects, I'll be the first to sign up."
http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2010-03-05/065019793549.shtml

If we assume that transgenic engineering is the trend of the future, organic farming can cater to the well- off. Giving consumers the right to choose is one way forward, and additionally, the transparency of processes such as the production and circulation of such goods, among others, is also very important. Some consumers do want organic, and ecological products. As that is the case, why would you worry that these products may not produced on a comparably large scale, with large production costs and prices as high as transgenic products? As long as there are willing consumers, there is no reason they shouldn't be successful.

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天哪,这真是袁先生说的吗?

转基因食品研发的过程就是一个非生态的过程,就象当年的疯牛病一样,往牛饲料里加牛肉粉,这样的食品能吃?全球人也会疯了!

Golly, did Mr.Yuan really mean it?

Genetically modified foods are anti-ecological, just like mad cow disease, adding vermicelliwithbeef into forage, how could the beef made in this way be eaten? Human beings are to be mad!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复评论10

真理越辩越明。看来我们的对峙,与其说是观点上的,不如说是表达上的。
不过,我相信,我们所探讨和担忧的,主要只是这项产业的效率问题。生态农业同时也是良心活,做的好,我们就会支持。
其他不说了,不然笔墨官司打不完。只说一点,食品安全,有两类,一类是三聚氰胺类,一类是寿光蔬菜类。请君思之。

Re. Comment 10

The more we debate, the clearer the truth becomes. It seems that with regard to our differences, rather than saying they are differences of viewpoint, it would be better to describe them as differences of expression.
However, I believe that out of everything we talk about and are concerned about, the most important part is the problem of the efficiency of organic farming. At the same time, organic farming is also well- intentioned; if it can be done well, we'd definitely support it.
I won't say anything else, or the lawsuit will never be finished. I'll only say one thing, there are two types of food safety problems, one is the melamine kind, and one is the Shouguang vegetable kind. Please think about that.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

公众支持

将家庭的土地用于可持续的食品生产,是一项可行的,有利可图的范例,已在日本得以很好实施。也就是说,农民直接像当地的消费者提供销售,这得益于公众支持计划实行,在日本被称作竹井计划或西部公众支持农业计划。
这是一个信任的机制,消费者在提供高质量、新鲜的本地食品上发挥了积极的作用,因此才能为消费者营造一个更加安全的市场,食品也有了更好的保障。

此评论由anna(陈丽英)翻译

community support

The workable, and profitable, model for combining family land to promote sustainable food production is aptly demonstrated in Japan by creating direct local sales from farmer to consumer via community supported schemes, called Takei in Japan or Community Support Agriculture in the West.
This is a trust system in which consumers take a small active role in their supply of higher quality, locally produced fresh food, thereby creating safer and better food security for those involved.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

蒋高明对本文的回应

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/e4d4e47101f69e31433294d6.html

Response to the article by Gaoming Jiang

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/e4d4e47101f69e31433294d6.html