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中国的生态高原政策

气候变化给青藏高原上的草原物种带来新的威胁。本周,多位作者将报道中国政府如何应对这一挑战及其环境和社会影响,贝丝•沃尔克率先对这一问题做出介绍。

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青藏高原的草地一直是世界上最重要的草原生态系统之一。自从2000年中国的西部大开发战略开始以来,这一地区作为“第三极”的全球重要性更是得到广泛认知。青藏高原既是全世界40%人口命脉所系的“水塔”,又是拥有独特自然和文化财富的地理区域。

五千年来,传统的牧业和狩猎一直维系着这个脆弱的高海拔生态系统的生存。但是,如今气候变化使这里面临着空前的压力。比如,在高原腹地黄河源地区,三分之一以上的草原已经退化成半荒漠状态。

过去十年中,中国政府已经采取许多政策来遏制荒漠化趋势,保护草原的生态和生物多样性。从20世纪80年代以来实行的政策包括划分牧场所有权,围栏放牧等等。随着西部大开发战略的启动,中国政府采取的第一个行动就是全国性的环境恢复措施,在农业方面是“退耕还林”,在牧业方面就是“退牧还草”。要想让退化的草原恢复到其自然状态,必须进行十年以上的禁牧,这就是上述政策的基础前提,因此牲畜必须迁移。现在,一轮空前的禁牧行动正在青藏高原的草原上展开。

但是,这一政策近来已经被另一个新的保护计划所超越,这就是“生态移民”。其做法就是让面临重大环境压力的地区人民移走,以便开展保护工作,90年代中期以来一直如此。2002年,生态移民正式成为一项国策。主要实施对象就是位于青藏高原腹地的青海三江源地区(即黄河、长江和湄公河这三条亚洲大河的源头)。2003年,该地区成为世界第二大自然保护区,同时也是海拔最高、面积最大的湿地保护区。

现在,成千上万户居民被迁离脆弱的草原地带,到新居所从事农业,或者到新的城镇居住。比如,青海已经新建起35个新的定居点,还有51个正在建设。根据政府的规划,截至今年初,已有超过10万名三江源居民得到重新安置(占当地人口的17%),以保护脆弱的草原生态。

但是,这些安置项目引起了学界的密切关注,主要是关于移民政策及其对中国少数民族的影响。有些学者提出,这样的项目不仅仅牵涉到环境保护,也涉及游牧民族的 城市化问题(在这个个案中,大部分少数民族是藏族和蒙古族)。此外,近来的研究表明过度放牧实际上并不是环境退化的主要原因。

叶蓓的文章《如此草原恢复》,明天将在中外对话网站发表。在文中,她对近年来中国政府的草原治理政策和移民安置计划进行了讨论。她说最新研究表明此类措 施的环境和社会效益可能被过度渲染。接下来,朱迪丝·沙皮洛将对美国南达科他州的拉科塔印第安部落的悲惨历史进行仔细回顾,并分析哪些教训是中国可以从中 吸取的。


贝丝·沃尔克,中外对话“第三极”项目研究人员。
 
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匿名 | Anonymous

外部因素制约和政策的不当

藏族有上百年可持续地管理自然环境的历史。如果不是外界影响,那么究竟发生了什么,让环境退化的如此明显? (相比文中提到的变化,气候变化的影响的历史更短。)

对许多已经城市化的半游牧民族来说,“恩人们”不会给他们选择,围栏和造林项目甚至让他们的可持续性的生活方式显得可笑。大家都知道这些外来干涉不会就此打住。这同时反映了外来者的傲慢,无论初衷善否。

External constraints and inappropriate policies

Tibetans have for centuries managed their natural environment sustainably. What has changed to cause their environment to so clearly degrade if not external influence? (The impact of climate change is more recent than the changes mentioned in the article.)

Many of the semi-nomadic people who have now been urbanised will have been given little choice by their "benefactors", not to forget that fencing and aforestation projects make their otherwise sustainable lifestyles untenable. That this external interference would be unsatisfactory is just common sense. It also reflects the arrogance of outsiders - whether well-intentioned or not.

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匿名 | Anonymous

看看这个视频

近年来,青海省游牧社区的安置项目甚为普遍(负面意义的),搬迁过程遇到了许多问题。游牧民族被赶出他们的土地,被安置进城镇或城郊的小房间里。他们失去了过往生活的方式,面临全新的挑战。大部分的牧民都不会说汉语,因此被迫迁离土地之后,他们基本上无事可做,完全没有就业的机会。并且没有足够的土地来蓄养牲畜,以至于不得不全部销售出去。关于出售牲畜的后果,请看看这则视频,它谈到了政府安置游牧民族的政策 http://sites.asiasociety.org/chinagreen/origins-of-rivers-omens-of-a-crisis/

watch this video

Resettlement projects in nomadic communities in Qinghai province is very popular(in a negitive way) these years and there are many problems in the relocated nomadic communities. Nomads were kicked out from their land and arranged in small rooms/spaces in towns and urban areas, and they lost their way of live and encountering a new chanllenge. Most of the nomads are iliterate in Chinese language and thus when they kicked out from their land, they have almost nothing to do. No job opportunities at all. And they dont have enough land to keep their livestock and they have to sell them. What will if they sell their livestock? please watch this video, it talks about government policies over nomads relocation. http://sites.asiasociety.org/chinagreen/origins-of-rivers-omens-of-a-crisis/#comments

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匿名 | Anonymous

中国100年重建计划

给草原植树行不通!我刚刚从文中提到的区域附近的省回来。中国需要的是历时百年的重建计划。树木作为C3从土壤中吸收碳。我们需要沿海C4植物,建立土壤碳/元素,以及蒸腾关系,才能有效的输送降雨。少数民族在青海有上千年经营草原牧业的历史,把他们驱赶出去无疑是个错误。

我已经在这些地区装置了C4槽和土壤碳。Robert Vincin (见谷歌)

Restoring PRC 100yr plan

Setting out a trees for grass land will fail! I have just returned for Provinces close to the region. What is needed is 100yr plan. Trees are C3 taking carbon from soil.We need to deliver rain by planting from coast C4 vegetation to build soil carbon/elements and the transpiration links. Removing the nomadic people who managed the grass/dung for 1,000yrs like those in Qinghai a mistake.
I have planted out C4 sinks in these areas and soil carbon follows. (no computer translation please) Robert Vincin (see Google)

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匿名 | Anonymous

What were the ccause of warming of the Tibetan plateau?

many of chinese scholars and scientists are doing lots of research in order to get the scientific reasons for warming the Tibetan plateau twice as fast as the rest of the world. However, They failed to study the chinese policy impacts on warming the Tibetan plateau as i did't find any research paper about the policies adopted and implementation on the Tibetan plateau. The chinese policies are the main causes of warming the plateau because they adopted and implementated various policies without involment or participation of local Tibetans; these Tibetans have traditional ecological knowledge which learned and experienced in daily life from one generation to generation, they understand about the plateau much better than so called chinese scholars and scientists.