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警惕转基因巨头“蚕食”他国农业

生物技术公司正在全球农业市场内迅速崛起。蒋高明认为,中国如不能坚定地表明立场,则将面临严峻的粮食安全问题。

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最近,绿色和平组织在雀巢公司销售的婴儿米粉中,发现转基因Bt成分。该公司在中国实施与某些国家不一样的“另类标准”,对欧盟、澳大利亚、俄罗斯和巴西等国家承诺不使用转基因原料,却拒绝对中国消费者做出同样的承诺。该事件被媒体曝光后,引发了人们对转基因食品安全问题的又一轮热议

目前,中国有关部门正积极推进转基因作物的研发和应用。对于转基因,不少专家认为该技术“利大于弊”,并将此举誉为继绿色革命以来,保障食品安全的“第二次绿色革命”。对于这样盲目乐观的态度,笔者不敢 苟同。除了对生态系统健康和食品安全造成潜在影响外,笔者还忧虑大面积推广转基因作物,尤其是那些跨国公司控制的转基因作物,将会对中国粮食生产主权乃至粮食安全产生重大影响。如果控制不好,将动摇中国粮食安全的根本。让我们以阿根廷农业为例,来说明这个问题。

1996年以前,阿根廷传统农业还有很大优势,粮食安全基本能够保障,政府无须补贴农业。然而,转基因大豆引入该国后,传统农业几乎毁于一旦。小扁豆、豌豆、绿豆等种植田地几乎全部被转基因大豆“吃掉”。2002年,孟山都转基因大豆占据了阿根廷大豆种植面积的99%。由于实行“拿来主义”,阿根廷忽视自身科技研发,当发现转基因大豆动摇其粮食安全根本后,想不种人家的转基因作物也来不及了了。

其实,转基因作物真正推广起来,并不像专家们想象的那样减少农药或除草剂使用,改善农田生态环境,而是相反。转基因大豆需要“开小灶”,除了照样使用大量农药化肥外,在杂草控制方面,还需使用专用除草剂——“抗农达”。这种除草剂,除了生物公司自己的转基因大豆,会将别国农田里的野生草本植物乃至作物都视同 “杂草”除掉。有反应,孟山都专用农药不仅杀死了阿根廷的庄稼,还伤害了牲畜,造成动植物畸形。长期接触那些农药,人也频繁出现恶心、腹泻、呕吐,造成皮肤伤害。

一家转基因跨国公司造成一个国家的粮食生产主权丧失,这并不是耸人听闻,阿根廷便是明证。但转基因巨头并不会就此止步,而是继续在全球实施其扩张计划。巴西长期不用转基因,但转基因公司买通了官员,在该国大面积种植转基因作物,而后对政府施加压力。巴西的传统农业也岌岌可危。

在成功征服阿根廷、巴西以后,转基因巨头开始全面进军中国农业,因为中国市场存在巨额商业利益。美国农业部计划以孟山都、杜邦等生物公司为“先遣队”,对中国政府攻关,推销其转基因产品。他们吹嘘其“抗农达2号”可提高产量最高达11%,借此诱惑中国官员。2009年第二季度,孟山都销售收入达到40.35亿美元,同比增长8%。而毛利润竟达25.21亿美元,同比增长14%。

大量转基因种子“入侵”中国,造成本土农业重创。中国是美国大豆出口第一市场,据中华油脂网数据,2008年中国从美国进口转基因大豆1543万吨,占进口总量的41%,而本土大豆却因价格因素滞销。去年黑龙江非转基因大豆价格低于种植成本,40%的大豆销售不出去;黑龙江68家大豆加工企业全部停工;哈尔滨超市几乎全部为转基因大豆。

美国从终端控制中国大宗粮食消费后,中国的话语权将变得很小。这样的话,中国引进的转基因种子就是无数“痛苦的种子”。然而转基因巨头的目标并不在“种子” 本身,中国18亿亩基本农田,足够让他们的神经兴奋起来。只要每公斤种子加上几元钱,那么,转基因巨头就可从中国获得数亿美元的利润。而其背后的化学产品,农药、化肥和除草剂,也会列队而来。

这真是新一轮没有硝烟的“鸦片战争”,是“高科技”烟幕掩盖下的鲸吞。据转基因巨头预测,种子和生物科技两块业务,到2012年可从中国带走73 ~75亿美元的“白银”,而留给中国人的是“新鸦片”上瘾后的生态系统健康和食品安全的巨大隐患!

应对这种局面,中国该怎么办?政府已经投资260亿元(约合38亿美元)用于追赶美国转基因巨头公司步伐,但这并非治本的措施。其实,影响粮食安全的关键在 “人”而不在“种”上,“谷贱伤农”、生产成本高、农民弃地进城、田地荒芜,才是影响中国粮食安全的真正原因。当所谓的“抗寒、抗旱、抗虫”转基因作物出 现在市场时,图省事的农民自然愿意多花几元钱购买;但在增效方面,即使像有关专家预测的那样,每公顷转基因水稻净收入提高90美元,每亩也只有6美元。粮食生产的格局不会发生大的变化,白让人家赚走专利费。

民为邦本,农为民本,土为根本。粮食增产的空间在于退化耕地的修复,在于元素有 效循环,在于生态平衡,在于农业生产能够为农民增收,在于农民愿意种地,如果背离了这些客观事实,盲目引进转基因技术,无异于将自身的粮食生产主权拱手交 给别国。中国要接受阿根廷、巴西的教训,时刻警惕来自转基因巨头的新型 “生物入侵”。


蒋高明,中国科学院植物研究所首席研究员、博士生导师,中国生态学会副秘书长、中国环境文化促进会理事。他提出的"城市植被"概念和"以自然力恢复中国退化生态系统"等观点得到社会各界广泛认可。

首页图片由 DawnOne

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

转基因食品跟鸦片一样

事实确实如蒋教授所言,抓基因之于农业正如鸦片之于人类。不仅仅中国的农业将永远成为雀巢种子来源奴隶,这种毒性还会渐渐深入其他的作物和土生作物。这类人没有考虑到未来的历史发展。作为在中国工作的澳大利亚人,我确信在澳大利亚的所有试验都证明了转基因意味着种子销售商的永久所有权。自然不需要孟山都雀巢,让我们一起来清洁自然。

罗伯特文森,北京

GM is same as Opium

The Good Professor Jiang is correct GM introduction into agriculture is like Opium to human. Not only will the PRC agriculture forever be a slave into Nestle et al as seed source the drug moves lateral into other crops and natives. These type of people have no families or concern for the historians of tomorrow. As an Australian serving here in PRC I can assure all the experiments in Australia proved GM is forever ownership by seed seller.
Nature did not need the Monsanto Nestles. Lets clean up the environment and them
Robert Vincin Beijing

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

钱多、人傻、快来!

看了蒋教授的文章我感到忧心忡忡!作为一个普通的百姓,我一直在关注转基因这个话题。其实问题的结症在于我们的经济增长方式,是一种不计方式,不计后果,竭泽而渔,一切为了GDP的危险的增长方式。
贪腐贯穿了整个开放的几十年,且愈演愈烈。很难想象贪官污吏能够为民谋利。我们的大豆种植及相关产业走到今天已经式微,关键是还能走多远?超市卖的食用油,转基因的比非转基因的便宜一半还多。普通老百姓看到这种降价油往往会多买,因为价格实在是让人抵不住诱惑。现在超市售卖的不仅有转基因豆大油,还有转基因花生油、转基因葵花籽油......。我们中国人常吃的黄酱、酱油、豆浆等豆制品也是以大豆为原料,是否也是转基因的?
我们的一些学者说,转基因的农产品是安全的,他们是如何得出这个结论的?有多少实验支持这个结论?为什么欧盟、澳大利亚、俄罗斯拒绝转基因?人类对基因层面的认识到了什么程度?在这些很一般的,连普通老百姓都感到困惑的问题得到肯定的答案之前,我们这样一个人口大国,却匆忙冲在了前头,为什么?错批一个人,多生好几亿。我们至今还在为这一人为的、未经科学论证的,错误的决策付出沉重的代价。错误的政策让我们的人民付出的代价还小吗!难道我们真是这样的国度:钱多,人傻?

Money is plenty, people are foolish, come quickly!

After reading Professor Jiang's article I feel worried! Being a regular person, I have been concerned about the issue of GM all along. Actually the crux of the matter lies in the way in which we encourage our economic growth, it is a dangerous growth model which does not consider the method or the consequences, which keeps on exploiting until the well runs dry - all in the name of GDP growth.
Corruption has run through the entire 'opening up' period, and the more successful we have been, the more it has intensified. It is very difficult to imagine our corrupt officials being capable of seeking profit on behalf of the people. Our soy bean plants and related industry are today already heading toward decline, the key problem being how much further can we go down this path? GM oil which is sold in supermarkets is cheaper than non-GM oil by more than half the price. When ordinary people see this low-price oil they will buy it more frequently because in reality the price will make people give way to temptation. At present, what is for sale in supermarktes is not restricted only to GM soy bean oil, there is also GM peanut oil, GM sunflower oil...We frequently eat soy bean products, like miso, soy sauce and soy milk, these are all made from soy bean, is the basic product not also genetically modified?
Some of our scholars say that GM produce is safe, but how have they come to his conclusion? How many tests are there supporting this conclusion? Why does the European Union, Australia and Russia reject GM? What degree of knowledge do we have at the human genetic level? In this we are all very much the same, even ordinary people feel that before such confusing issues are decided we need to receive concrete answeres, why do we as the population of such a great nation rush in head-first? By wronging one person, we may give life to hundreds of millions of people. Still to this day we make man-made things, and this is not yet based on scientific evidence, the wrong decision could mean paying a heavy price. The wrong policy will make our people pay a price which is small as of yet! Are we really this kind of country: money is plenty, people are foolish?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

希望这篇文章能被广为传阅

谢谢蒋教授这篇文章,简短但一针见血,道出了基因工程的巨大潜在危害性,而这个危机离我们越来越近了。
希望这篇文章能被广为传阅,特别是在相关政府机构部门内,强烈建议发到求是理论网,希望能引起当局重视。
并希望蒋教授再深入研究这个课题,能从生态,农作物,和健康等各个领域进一步阐述和解释基因工程的已知和未知。

I hope this article will be widely circulated

Thank you for this article Professor Jiang, it is short but sharp, showing the great hidden dangers of GM engineering, and that this crisis is looming ever closer.
I hope that this article can be widely circulated, especially within related government agencies and departments. I strongly recommend that it be sent to the 'Qiushi' journal website, and I hope that it will attract high regard among the authorities.
I also hope that Professor Jiang will once again research this issue deeply and will take one step further in expounding and explaining what we already know and what we do not yet know about GM engineering in the fields of ecology, agriculture and health.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态黑客

被黑了还高兴得跟在黑客后数钱

Ecological hackers

We are happy to count the money from the hackers after being hacked, are we?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

是基本原则而不是国籍问题

如果是中国,而不是拥有转基因技术的美国或者欧盟那些跨国公司(而且有一些是),态度是否会改变呢?
要抓住反对转基因农业的基本原则,而不是抵抗推销人的国籍,前者才是重点。

Underlying principle not nationality

But would attitudes change if it were Chinese, not US or EU multi-nationals which owned the GM technology (and some do)?

The deplorable underlying principles of GM agriculture are more relevant than the nationality of those promoting it.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我唯一能做到的

我唯一能做到的就是,作为消费者,抵制转基因食品!

买豆油的时候,我只买标有“非转基因”字样的豆油!

The only thing that I can do

The only thing that I can do as a consumer is to boycott GM foods. When buying soy bean oil, I only buy soy bean oil labelled as "GM free".
(Comment translated by Matthew Bailey)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我很茫然

作为一名普通消费者,面对媒体上各种各样的转基因报道,我真的很茫然:政府貌似在大力推广应用转基因粮食,可眼下转基因到底对人身体是否影响还没有定论;一边是孟山都这些大公司的积极活动,另一边又说中国的转基因技术已经拥有多项专利。
这个场面很热闹,可到现在,我还是不知道该听谁的观点!

I am confused

As an ordinary consumer, I am really confused by all kinds of media coverage of genetic modification -- it appears that the government is strongly backing the wider use of genetically modified crops; but currently nothing is conclusive about how gm food impacts humans; on one hand big companies such as Monsanto are very active, on the other it is said that China has many patents related with genetic modification.

Despite the bustle of all this, I am still not sure whom I should listen to now!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

两害相权取其轻

转基因是一种新技术,有一些不确定性。所有的农业技术都有优缺点,我们的选择只能是选择危害小一点的技术,如何判断危害更小,不是靠我们的想象,而是需要严格透明的食品安全监督制度。
btw, 这文章放在环球时报还比较适合。

Choose the less of 2 devils

GM is a new technology with some uncertainty. All agruicultral techologies have both pros and cons, and we can only choose the ones with less harms. The way to evalutate the harms is not by our imagination, but through a strict and transparent system of food security monitoring.

By the way, this article is more suitable for 'Global Times'.