文章 Articles

农药缘何大规模进入食物链

最近的研究表明,中国食品安全仍需要改进。专栏作家蒋高明认为,有机生产是解决问题的一种方案。在这里,他解释了如何就此做出改变。

Article image

不久前,绿色和平组织在北京、上海和广州三地的大型超市和农贸市场,以普通消费者身份采购日常蔬菜,送往青岛一家国家授权的、独立的第三方检测机构化验。结果发现:在45 个送检的蔬菜样品中,40 个检测出农药残留;农药种类高达50 种,其中5 种是世界卫生组织确认的高毒农药。北京一家沃尔玛超市一颗草莓上竟残留有13 种农药 (《外滩画报》,6月8日)。

无独有偶。杭州某知名食品企业生产的“姚太太烤鳗鱼”、“姚太太香烤小黄鱼”,近日被北京工商局检出亚硫酸盐超标,不合格批次产品在北京市场已撤柜。此外, 还有4家企业的4批次食品被检出不合格。其中,亚硫酸盐、甜蜜素、糖精钠、苯甲酸等食品添加剂超标(《每日经济新闻》,6月10日)。

在短短一两年内,瘦肉精猪肉三聚氰胺毒奶粉、(类)胰岛素样生长因子(IGF-1)牛奶等事件频繁曝光于媒体。“还有什么东西能吃?” 老百姓这一疑问,反映了他们对食品安全的不信任心态。

蔬菜农药残留是笔者预料之中的事情,所惊诧的是业已严重到如此程度。世界上的事情就怕认真,只要认真排查起来,那些问题食品就会大白于天下。然而,为什么农药能够大规模进军食物链呢?根据笔者的长期观察,认为以下几方面的原因是主要的。

第一,生产方仅管生产,他们不消费自己的产品。农民不吃自己种的蔬菜,种出来是卖给别人吃的;养鸡养猪户不吃自己的鸡肉和猪肉,需要时到市场上购买放心一点的肉。如果所有人都这么想就危险了。有一个笑话让我笑不起来。这个笑话的大意是,两个人碰在一起喝酒,一个是种蔬菜的,一个是养猪的,都用自己生产的东西做下酒菜。菜上来了,养猪肉的不吃自己的猪肉,而挑对方的蔬菜;而种菜的不吃自己的蔬菜,专挑对方的猪肉。一个不争的事实是,农民留给自己吃的蔬菜和粮食是不打药、不施化肥的。目前在农村,农民定亲、婚丧嫁娶等重大活动请客,谁家如用养鸡场的鸡招待客人,是被乡亲们耻笑的,这家会在村里抬不起头来的。养鸡场的鸡肉是卖到城市去的,而城里人没有选择。

第二,优质农产品生产成本高,经营方不愿营销成本稍高的放心食品。按照农业部门的分类, 食品分为有机、绿色、无公害和普通食品等,生产这些食品需要投入的成本有较大区别,因此价格上差异也大。如规定生产有机食品不能有化学类物质添加,农药自 然是不允许用的,这样生产成本就增大了。然而,由于管理不严,许多打着“有机”或“绿色”品牌的食品,其实就是普通食品。仅外面的商标是真的,内容却是假 的。假的成本最低,利润空间大,许多商家都愿意卖,包括一些大型超市。

第三,消费方不可能对购买的食品进行化验,从消费终端控制农药是奢望。尽管新出台的《食品安全法》规定,如消费者发现了有害农产品,可索取10倍以上的赔偿。但普通消费者很难做到为了几元或几十元的食品,花几千元去找第三方鉴定。在食品消费方面,消费者是明显的弱势群体。只要超市卖什么,他们就买什么,唯一的希望就是质检部门为他们的健康“保驾护航”。

第四,农业生产方式出现了严重问题。大农药、大化肥、除草剂、添加剂、农膜是现代农业的“常规武器”,目前有关部门正积极普及转基因 “新式武器”。反季节果蔬生产,加剧了农产品中的药物残留;动物“速成班”将鸡、鸭、鹅等禽类生命周期缩短至28~45天,猪缩短至2.5~4个月。这些严重违背生物学规律的种植和养殖模式大量泛滥,令各种农药、激素和添加剂充斥城乡食品中。

第五,监管力度不大,无法从源头控制食品污 染。由于农产品生产多为农户经营,销售渠道也五花八门,食品安全监管起来困难很大。目前的做法多在超市或农贸市场末端监管,但农药和添加剂早已混进食物 了;检出的毕竟是少数,多数会成“漏网之鱼”。即使检测出问题食品,地方政府部门为稳定老百姓情绪,多是“大事说小,小事不报”的,或多搪塞语言。必须充 分发挥民间监督力量,让农药、激素和有害添加剂远离健康。

第六,科学家没有起到很好的作用。那些令人眼光缭乱的农药和添加剂,多为科学家的新发明。科学家有意夸大其发明物的正面作用,有意隐瞒其负面影响。三聚氰胺就是“良心”缺失的科学家的“杰作”。目前,许多化学家、生物学家、农学 家的发明瞄准与人类性命攸关的食物生产,让人感到十分不安。

其实,告别农药和化肥并不难,有机农业就是一个很好的出路,难的是优质的食品卖不上优质的价格,商家就降低成本来经营这一人命关天的食品产业。仅靠惩罚是起不了多大作用的。必须形成一种合理的机制,在生产方加强管理,消费者购买食品时“认地认人”,由独立的第三方来认证,并实行严格的年检制度。农民在健康环境下生产食品,所造成的成本增加消费者应当“买单”。当然,这是通过市场发生的自觉行动。“让一部分先吃起来”,不妨从有机农业做起。如果市场上纯正的有机食品增加了,普通市民对健康放心食品的需求增加了,那么,我们告别农药的这一天就不远了。

强烈呼吁安全放心食品,这样的食品必须在健康的生态过程中生产出来。要实现这点,必须逐步告别农药、化肥、除草剂、添加剂、农膜、转基因。所投入的费用和劳动力可通过健康的有机食品销售得到补偿,通过消费者的自觉消费,修复日益恶化的农村生态环境。

首页图片由 kwramm

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

谁来支持?

嗯...人们经常告诉我在喝茶之前要先将茶洗一洗。有时候我买有机茶,但它通常会更昂贵些。我试着从望京购物超市里买天方牌的茶。虽然这种茶的宣传语和味道都不错,也不怎么昂贵,但却极难在其他商店买到。我经常在本地超市买所谓的有机茶。但它们身上无标签,产商也没有什么来证明茶的产地。那时,这些也并未占据市场的大部分分额。
COSCO甚至已经开始进行一个关于油产品的非转基因销售宣传。这应该是在显出食品与饮料产品对深谙世故的消费者们变得逐渐敏感。我最近去过一个更高档的餐馆,它三十页的菜单里有足足九十种不同的菜肴,但仅有一种是源自有机原料。
让我更为吃惊的是,超市以及本地市场不能保证它们食品的质量。那谁又能希望路边摊上的食物是有机的?市场外的购物车么?有机食品需要宣传与普及,我是如此赞同。但到底谁会来做这件事?什么时候它会触犯人们舒服习惯了的程式?
此评论由Hotstepper发表。
(此篇由刘雅晴翻译)

Who's support?

Hmmm. I'm often told to wash tea once (before drinking it). Sometimes I buy organic tea, but it's usually the more expensive type. I try to buy Tianfang (天方)from the Hualian supermarket in Wangjing. Yet, though they seem to make an excellent sales pitch, isn't costly, has a finer taste, I can barely find it in other stores. I often buy the so-called organic teas in the local markets. But they don't have a label on them, and the owners don't keep anything to prove to me where it's from. Then, these don't make up a large proportion of the market.
COSCO have even started doing a non-GM selling promotion on oil, which ought to show that food and beverage production is becoming more sensitive to sophisticated consumers.
I was in a more upmarket restaurant recently with a 30-page menu containing maybe 90 different dishes, but only one that was sold on being organic. I was taken aback to see even that.
Supermarkets and local markets cannot ensure the quality of their food. Then what hope that food at roadside stallls will be organic? The carts outside markets? Organic food needs popularizing, I so agree. But who'll do this exactly? When it will tread on so many toes? By: Hotstepper.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

自家的菜园子

我看到,在老家农村,很多人家都是自家种菜吃的,从不去市场上买蔬菜;他们不是没钱买不起菜吃,相反,越是日子过得好的人家,家里的主妇越是重视收拾自家的菜地,充分利用着有限的空间种着豆角、黄瓜、茄子和西红柿等。三天两头的,就能看到妈妈领着孩子忙着给菜地浇水。

Vegetable garden for oneself

I perceived that in my hometown village many people is cultivating vegetables for themselves, they never buy vegetables at the marketplace; it’s not because they can’t afford buy, but on the contrary - many of them live the good life, even housewives are taking more care of family’s vegetable plot, using to the full extent limited space to grow beans, cucumbers, eggplants, tomato etc. Almost every day I can see mothers making children water the crops.

Translated by Katarzyna Wachowska

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

有机农业

不让在田里用除草剂、不让用化肥的话,那么产量肯定会大大下降的。对于那些依靠种菜为生的菜农来说,这显然是无法接受的。

从长远来看,所谓的有机农业,充其量是供一部分有钱人享用的,而多数的普通人,则是消受不起的。

Organic Farming

Crop yields will drop sharply without the use of herbicides and fertilizer, an unacceptable consequence to farmers who rely on growing vegetables to make a living.

In the long term, so-called "organic food" is at best a luxury for a few rich people. As for the general public, frankly, we cannot afford it.

Translated by Tian Liang

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

速成的鸡真吓人

这个“动物速成班”说的很形象啊。我曾去一家养鸡户家里参观过,很受震撼。在院子的四周,一排排的鸡笼整整齐齐地排列着。那些承载着主人希望的肉鸡们,大多安安静静地躺着,没有争先恐后地叫个不停。它们的任务只有一个:那就是不停的吃。在院子里,还有几只散放的鸡在慢腾腾地走着。有的鸡正走着就突然摔倒了,因为腿太细了,已经无法支撑整个身体的重量。

battery farmed chicken is really scary

This is a very vivid description of factory farming. I once visited the home of a chicken farmer and was utterly shocked. Hencoops were arrayed in packed rows around the edge of a courtyard. The chickens lie still in complete silence without any of the usual crowing and noise you'd expect. Their sole purpose in life is to eat constantly. In the centre of the yard, a few loose chickens were sluggishly wandering around. Some of them just fell over while trying to walk -- their legs were too thin to carry the weight of their bodies.
(Translated by Liu Yaqing)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

mk1020

因为环境不断被人破坏,于是就有了大量的害虫,就有无限量的农药(在中国)被使用,于是我们就不得不分享大量的农药。因为有人想要赚钱,于是有了更无耻的种养方法,就有了说不清的害人食品,就有更多的医院,更多的火葬场,更多的墓地。国为有不负责任的监管部门、大量的污染得不到不治理,大量的违法食品涌入市场,于是就大量的非正常死亡接踵而至。

mk1020

Cause growing fragile environment, all kinds of pests come into existance, pesticides were used widely,so,we have to "enjoy" these chemical substances now. To make money,people use shameful cultivation methods,and provide tainted food; more hospitals,more crematoriums,and more graveyards; Cause irresponsible governmental departments,the pollution havn't been controlled, illeagal food flows into market,the usual death incidents come one after another.

Translatede by Tian Liang

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

记得削皮

以前在吃苹果、桃子、梨这些带皮的水果时,我都是直接用水洗洗就吃了,现在我决心,一定要先削皮。虽然那些果皮含有丰富的维生素,但我可不想自己慢性中毒而死。
还有,在家里做饭时,也别忘了给茄子、西葫芦啥的削皮。

Remember to peel

I used to just wash things like apples, peaches and pears before eating them. Now, however, I've made up my mind to peel them as well. Even if the skins might be full of vitamins, I don't want to die a slow death from poisoning.

When you're cooking at home, don't forget those aubergines and squashes need peeling too.

Translated by Tian Liang

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

道高一尺,魔高一丈

同意5号。农药喷得越多,连害虫都有了抗药性,怎么办?开发毒性更大的农药,但我们别忘了,这些小东西的生命力是很顽强的。比起它们,人类对于自己的适应能力只能是自愧不如。
关键是,到最后,这颗滥用农药的苦果是要我们来吞下的。

While the priest climbs a post, the devil climbs ten.

I agree with NO.5. The more pesticide sprayed, the stronger pests' drug resistance gets. So what next? Well, we could start making even more toxic pesticides. But remember, they're resilient little buggers. Next to them, we can only hang our head in shame over our own capacity to adapt.

The fact that we use too much pesticide is a bitter pill that we're going to have to swallow in the end.

Translated by Tian Liang

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

农超对接

在中国,不管是肉、禽、蛋,还是蔬菜、水果,这些食品原料都是由分散的农户供应的,然后运到农贸市场上,在个体摊贩与消费者之间进行交易。这种分散生产与农贸市场交易的现实,决定了对食品安全进行监管的困难性。

像沃尔玛等一些大型超市实施的“农超对接”能大大缓解上述的现实困境,通过建立农产品直购基地的形式,让农民按照绿色、有机的方式进行生产。从长期来看,这样不仅环保、健康,而且能节省流通成本,使商家受惠。

super-agricultural docking

In China,most food ingredients, including meat, poultry, egg, fruit and vegetables, are all suplied by the highly scattered peasants. The ingredients are then carried to the farmers' Markets where transactions would be done between a lot of vendors and customers. The scattered production model and numerous retail channels mean supervising food quality is problematic. “Super-agricultural docking” implemented by some large-scale supermarkets like WAL-MART can greatly relieve the problem mentioned above. The agricultural production methods of organic and green will be possible by setting up bases for producing or processing agricultural products.In the long term, the modern circulation system of agricultural products could be both environmental and healthy,and also can reduce the circulation cost of agricultural products.Concequently, implement the programme will benefit more enterprises.
(translated by Lei Wang.)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

有机了,谁吃得起

都有机了,老百姓还怎么活,哪吃得起,有机是一个长远的话题,不能急功近利,不要因为您有钱可以买健康,没钱的人呢,要逐步用其他的低成本的东西告别农药、化肥,例如转基因的抗虫抗病、高氮、磷利用率的品种等等,这才是目前最重要的解决之道

Organic Food, Who Can Afford It?

If all food was organic, how would normal people get by, who'd be able to afford it? Organic food is a long- term topic, and you can't just look to make a quick buck, shouldn't make healthy food the preserve of the wealthy- what of the poor? Other low- cost things should gradually be used to part ways with pesticide and fertilizer, such as transgenic crops with disease and pest- resistant properties, crop strains with a high capacity to use nitrogen and phosphorus, and so on. It is only these which are the most important ways to a solution at present.