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回归自然心境

繁忙的科技时代快乐吗?凯特·亨布尔指出,如果我们离开电脑,多花点儿时间亲近自然,就能改善我们的心境。

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(本文首次刊登在野禽与湿地基金会主办的《Waterlife》杂志上,经允许在此转载。)

近几十年来,我们的词汇日新月异,以至于爷爷奶奶们如今都搞不懂我们在说什么。在1980年代,我们对首字母缩略词感到纳闷儿,语言中充斥着雅皮士丁克族邻避主义。到了1990年代,我们针对字首的做法“恶劣”之极,简直是颠覆性的,把“mobile”从一个形容词(移动的)变成了一个名词(移动电话)。

进入新千年之后,我们埋头电脑,并开始写博客,用谷歌搜索所有有价值的东西。忙忙碌碌的社会,简简单单的缩写,时间不够就用速写词。由于生活节奏的加快,我们的语言也亦步亦趋。而这种顽固的享乐主义把我们带到了哪里?我们也为此创造了一个新的说法。信贷危机能影响我们的一生,然而,先辈们全然不知这意味着什么。天哪,他们大多数人过去甚至无法获得贷款。

但是,一言以蔽之,而且无疑也是一个总结性的新词,它叫做生态心理学。尽管这个词出现尚不到20年,但是有关生态心理学的思想观点古已有之。总之,它的意思是,自然让你感觉良好,如果那似乎是一个相当老套和显而易见的表述,不妨想想我们很多人离自然有多远吧。

在英国,去年有一项调查显示,只有53%的儿童能够正确地识别一片橡树叶,有近三分之一的儿童对喜鹊是什么样子一无所知。另外一项调查要求儿童列出最喜欢的打发时间的方式:在乡下玩儿被排在了垫底的位置。

此外,世界卫生组织预计,到2020年,抑郁症将成为第二大健康杀手,由此你开始感到纳闷,我们与自然接触越来越少和对抗抑郁药依赖越来越大之间,是否存在某种关联。

看来它们是有关联的。世界各地的一些研究表明,在医院病床上能看到窗外绿植的病人,与只能见到更多工业或城市景观的病人相比,往往康复速度更快。其他一些研 究表明,在很多城市环境里,如果人们的生活能更加接近自然,有关暴力的报告减少达50%。还有报告表明,自然对儿童注意力缺陷障碍和成人易怒水平有作用。 有绿色空间的社区与没有绿色空间的社区相比,社会交往高出90%。压力水平下降,犯罪减少,这都是好事儿。

坦率地说,这真的管用。野禽与湿地基金会(WWT)伟大的传奇人物珍妮特·基尔曾经这样写道:“正如你不能睁着眼睛打喷嚏一样,你喂鸟的时候无法不面带微笑。”

同时,仅仅在绿植中走走,就能给我们一定程度的锻炼,这对我们也有好处。

自然的科学益处正得到越来越多的印证,但是同时也存在审美的一面。诗人威廉·华兹华斯在《咏水仙》一诗中写道:“兀自倚憩息,/岑寂,幽然冥想;/蓦地花影闪心扉,/独处方能神往;/衷心喜悦洋溢,/伴水仙、舞不息。”在诗中,他既没有写吸入氧气,也没有提到神经生物系统。

医学证明,自然对我们是有益的,这好极了,而且恰逢其时。然而,我们毕竟是人类,不是机器,要通过人类的判断来帮助我们做出决定。最近一项调查询问, 如果医生认为有效,开出的处方不是药,而是户外锻炼,被调查者是否会感到高兴。如今,户外锻炼比吃一颗药丸子需要花费更多的时间,付出更多的努力,不过有 94%的被调查者的回答是肯定的,他们将很高兴接受那个建议。要把更多的时间花在绿色空间里,搅动我们所有人心扉的莫非不仅是医学需要,而且也是精神需 要?

这不关宗教的事儿,但是和隐藏在我们的集体心理中的自然环境有关。我们本身就是自然生物,只不过从树林和湿地移居到了砖房里,维系着两者之间的联系的是沥青路面,而我们的时光则在闪光的屏幕前打发掉了。难道我们仅仅是渴望曾经直接给予我们祖先生命和生计的世界吗?

生物学家和思想家EO·威尔逊认为,我们的人性有效依赖于我们与自然打交道的方式。他写道:“我们之所以是人类,主要是因为我们与其他生命体交往的特殊方式。它们提供了天生追求的挑战与自由。”他称之为亲生命性,其基本意思是热爱生命。

不妨将之与另外一位男士的著作对比一下。当他坐在窗边往外看的时候,他看见妻子在帮女儿把毛虫放在新鲜的杨树枝上,儿子则在画一棵树。他在自然中思考着他的 人生,并写道“我 比以往任何时候都更加深信,我是我所知道的最幸运的人。我之所以这样说,既不是装腔作势,亦非沾沾自喜,而是因为我能够想到,没有比身在福中不知福更可悲 的事情了。也许我是一只把头埋在沙子里的鸵鸟。也许命运或我自己及其他人的愚蠢,会给我带来种种灾难,但是他们无法带走这些激动而幸福的时光。不认识到这 种福分,将是不可原谅的。”

这就是野禽与湿地基金会创始人、其他生命体真正为其提供那种挑战与自由的彼得·斯科特爵士。他在1960年写下了上面这段文字,而且是其自传《风之眼》的结束语。当你的人生和斯科特一样,和野生动植物保持充分的联系,并在幸福中度过,那么你就会真正懂得自然所能提供给你的东西。

有很多人追随着他在野禽与湿地基金会的脚印,继续他的事业,访问自然护区,参与志愿者服务,并找到户外生活给予他们无限幸福的途径。那些保护区、那项事业以及那份幸福感,在等待着我们所有人。

生态心理学和亲生命性是好词,但是不要只是用谷歌来搜索它们。让我们一起在现实世界中找寻它们的含义吧。


凯特·亨布尔
野禽与湿地基金会副主席。


(本文首次刊登在野禽与湿地基金会主办的《Waterlife》杂志上,经允许在此转载。)

你感到和自然亲近吗?如今是不是有太多的人远离绿色空间?你会争取多少时间,仅仅是在树林中或小山上走走,或者是露营、钓鱼?这种体验能否会改变你的精神面貌?

请在论坛中分享你的想法与体会。


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匿名 | Anonymous

漫步

亨布尔说得对。我们确实需要回归自然,去观察各种花草和动物。我最喜欢的一个作家,美国诗人梭罗在他1862年出版的《漫步》中说道,“除非我每天至少花4小时的时间——通常比这个更多——漫步于丛林与山野间,否则我便会处于无精打采的状态”。在一天之中,我们没有长达4个消失的空暇用但来漫步,但我们应尽力地挤出时间来回归自然。我们都需要这样做,即使是在一个小公园里,那份自然的宁静也会大不一样。梭罗在1854年出版的《瓦尔登湖》很好地体现了一种简约生活的理念。它充满了深刻的思考和令人惊叹的观察,比如,“我宁愿独自坐在南瓜上,而不愿挤在一张天鹅绒垫子上”。假如你发现自己总是居于室内,虽然舒服但却令人窒息,那就出去走一走吧——或拿出一本《瓦尔登湖》,开始读吧。现在,听从亨布尔(和梭罗)的建议,注销你的账号吧。
Matilda (田亮翻译)

Walking

Kate Humble is right. We do need to reconnect with nature, to get out amid the flora and fauna.
One of my favourite writers, the American author Henry David Thoreau said, in his essay "Walking", published in 1862: "I think that I cannot preserve my health and spirits unless I spend four hours a day at least -- and it is commonly more than that --sauntering through the woods and over the hills and fields, absolutely free from all worldly engagements." We don't all have four free hours in the day for "sauntering", but we should try to make more time in our lives for such natural healing. We all need it, this peace that nature can provide. Even an hour in a local park can make a difference.
Thoreau's book "Walden", first published in 1854, is a great reflection on living simply. It's full of sensible thoughts and inspiring observations. "I would rather sit on a pumpkin and have it all to myself than be crowded on a velvet cushion," for example.
If you find yourself indoors for too long, crowded amid the comfort, take a long walk outside -- or pull out a copy of "Walden" and start reading.
Logging off now to follow Humble's (and Thoreau's) wise counsel. -- Matilda

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匿名 | Anonymous

中国的孩子

作者说自然界的或植物,或动物对于英国的孩子越来越显得陌生,其实,中国的孩子的情况也是如此啊。他们打小起就远离了泥土,更别说什么自由地奔跑于田野之间了。我有一个7岁的小侄子回老家,见到啄木鸟,就问这种喜鹊的嘴怎么这么长啊。

The children in China

According to this writer, children in the UK have become less familiar with animals and plants in nature. It is actually the same case for children in China. They have been removed from nature from an early age, needless to say, they haven't had the experience of running freely across fields. When my 7-year-old nephew returned to our old home and saw a woodpecker, he asked why that magpie had such a long beak.

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匿名 | Anonymous

州长去徒步旅行了

在我读完这篇文章后不久,我很惊讶的了解到我们南卡罗来那的州长失踪了四天,显然没有通知过他的下属和家人他去了哪里。现在州长办公室的发言人说马克.桑福德上周末在立法会会期结束后为了清醒一下头脑,到景色优美的阿巴拉契亚山徒步旅行去了。如果报道的细节准确,桑德福关掉了他的手机,动身前往横跨缅因州和乔治亚州的2100公里长的山路。那他现在究竟在哪里?媒体似乎也不清楚-好像是这个南部常在野外活动的人故意为之。干得好,州长!
查理.M。
(本评论由张靓翻译)

Governor takes a hike

Shortly after reading this article, I was amused to learn that the governor of my state, South Carolina, vanished for four days, apparently without briefing his staff or family about his plans. Now a spokesman for the governor's office says Mark Sanford escaped late last week "to clear his head after the legislative session", and that he was hiking along the scenic Appalachian Trail. If the details are correct as reported, Sanford switched off his cell phones and headed for the 2,100-mile-long trail, which runs from Maine to Georgia. So just where is he? The media don't seem to know -- which sounds like what this southern outdoorsman would have intended. Well done, governor, from Charlie M.!

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匿名 | Anonymous

州长-最新消息

到阿巴拉契亚山间好好的徒步旅行一场清醒一下头脑,原来根本就不是这么回事。请看http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSTRE55N3GZ20090624
撇开这个来自于美国的假消息和令人难堪的事件不说,真正的重点是:走到大自然中,呼吸新鲜空气,让我们再寻回内在的自我才是最关键的。倘若州长短暂失踪的真实故事曝光后,他将来会有大把时间进行漫长而潜心的徒步旅行了。--来自南卡罗来纳为此感到脸红的查理。
本文由张靓翻译。

Governor - update

Clearing his head with a good long walk on the Appalachian Trail, it turns out, wasn't what the governor was doing after all.
See http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSTRE55N3GZ20090624

Putting aside this false and embarrassing incident from the US, the essential point remains: Getting out in nature, in the fresh air, and reconnecting with our inner selves, is vital. Given the real story of the governor's brief disappearance, he may find that he has a lot of time in the future for long, contemplative walks!)
-- from red-faced Charlie in South Carolina

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匿名 | Anonymous

我们为什么要亲近自然

我小的时候在野地里长大,自然环境是生活的一部分,我一直习以为常,直到有一年夏天我回来过暑假,发现屋边的那片树木消失地无影无踪、想种一盆兰花却再也找不到泥土的时候,我才意识到我的一些东西被剥夺了、我与自然的一些联系被割裂了。那一刻我甚至有哭的冲动,感觉自己的某个亲人被剥夺了。我觉得,对于那此与自然有着深厚感情的人和认识到自然对于自己的价值的人来说,环境问题首先是一个私人问题,而不是全球变暖和能源危机。
我举自己的例子是为了回应人为什么要亲近自然,为什么对自然有着精神需求。那是因为人本来就是自然,人的本性和根子中有一部分是生物学的,它需要和自然保持肉体上和精神上的亲近。生态心理学家罗杰克(Roszak)将人的心理中最深层的与自然相联系的部分称为生态无意识,类似于荣格的集体无意识,人需要在自然中体验自己生根于自然的感觉,还原到现实的层面,人就需要在情感上体验自然。但是这种生态无意识被压抑了,我们被从自然中割离了出来,这是现代城市化进程中一直发生的事实。
这篇文章中的例子非常能说明问题,也很让我受启发。我们现在肯定是回不去了,但是仍然可以花多一点的时间去亲近自然,让自已的“生态心理”保持健康。
生态文化方向的研究生,Shiblom Lu
http://blog.stnn.cc/luzhibo

Why we need to be close to nature

When I was small I grew up in the wild countryside and the natural environment was a part of my life. All along, I was used to the natural environment, until one summer I came back for summer vacation and realized that the trees next to my house had disappeared without a trace. Like a pot of orchids that couldn’t find its dirt, I slowly realized that I had been deprived of something and that I had been split from my connection with nature. At that time I felt like crying, like I was split from a family member. I think that there are some people who have strong feeling for nature and who recognize that nature is worth a lot to them. They think that environmental issues are a personal issue and not about climate change or the energy crisis. I will use myself as an example to explain why people need to get close to nature, and why they have a spiritual need for nature. Since people originally came from nature, and their natural instincts and roots are biological, they need to stay close to nature to preserve their physical body as well as their spirit. Ecopsychologist Roszak said the deepest human psychological need was its connection with nature, and he called it the ecological unconscious. It is similar to Jung’s collective unconscious in that it people need to experience their own roots while being in nature to return to a plane of reality, and people need to experience nature emotionally. But we have been cut off from this ecological unconscious and we have been cut off from nature; this has happened thanks to urbanization. This article gives a good example of the problem; I find it very enlightening. There is no way we can go back now, but we can still spend a little more time getting close to nature, to keep our ecological spirit healthy.

Ecological culturally oriented graduate student, Shiblom Lu http://blog.stnn.cc/luzhibo (Translated by Michelle Deeter)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

何时才能寻找到儿时的环境

小时候在农村长大,每天放学后可以到草地、树林为家里的家畜打一些草,如给羊吃的槐树叶;每天早上起来,首先听到的是喜鹊、燕子等一些叫不出名字的鸟儿的歌唱声;在冬天的时候,可以在雪地里捕鸟;夏季可以偷偷的与一群小伙伴在小河里畅游、钓鱼。。。。。而现在一切已变成梦境。那时的一个冬天,政府部门一声令下,砍伐全部的树木,换上经济型银杏树,可以发家致富。一下子,所有一切全部是光秃秃的。鸟儿没有了;家畜也没有喜爱吃的树叶了;小河也变得发臭,每年必须清理;河流每年需要疏通,河床雨水一冲全部下塌。。。。。。就是那一年,导致这么多年的一直需要我们来承担这样的后果。而一窝蜂的改种,导致产品过剩,价格下跌,现在农民们有准备砍去这些变成废物的银杏树了。如此恶性循环,环境什么时候才能得以改善呢?----美丽天空

When could we find the environment as we had in childhood

Growing up in the countryside,I collected grasses for herds from the grassland and woods, and fed goats with locust leaves. Every morning when I got up I could hear the twittering of magpies, swallows and some birds that I couldn't tell the name. When the winter came, we played catching birds in the snowfield, while in summer stealthily we went swimming and fishing in the brook with pals...... All above, However, have already become a dream for me. Once in a winter the government ordered the deforestation of all trees to convert to economic maidenhair trees which they believed could make us rich. All became bald at a sudden. Birds had gone; no tasted leaves for herds; creeks got smell and needed to be clean every year; rivers demanded to be dredged every year, and banks were crushed down in the wash of rains...... Actions of that exact year caused the consequences we undertook for years. But swarmed changing of the planting led to the over production and the fall of price, and farmers were prepared to cut those useless maidenhair trees. Vicious circle like this again and again, when could the environment get improved?---Beautiful Sky The comment was translated by Li Huan)