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炸薯条和肥胖儿--亚洲的下一场流行病

肥胖症是目前亚洲国家面临的一场新流行病。罗格•达汤德说,食品行业对造成肥胖症的增多有很大的责任。对此,政府需要有所行动来保护他们的公民。
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很多人认为,过度肥胖问题困扰的仅仅是那些食品丰足的富裕国家,因为胖嘟嘟的美国人拼命点着麦当劳“巨无霸”、炸薯条和可口可乐的景象,已经成为发达世界的缩影。

过度肥胖问题已不再为发达国家独有

然而,事实却并不然。过度肥胖及与之相关的疾病,如糖尿病、高血压和肾脏疾病,并不在乎贫富和阶级差别,任何一个社会,只要方便食品唾手可得,只要人们缺少运动,只要高盐高脂高糖食品广告满天飞,都会遭到过度肥胖问题及相关疾病的困扰。

在一些中低收入国家,不合理的饮食和缺乏锻炼引起的心脏病、中风、癌症和其他慢性病,已经夺去了很多人的生命。根据世界卫生组织的调查,2005年这几类疾病患者数在所有慢性病患者中占80%(28,000,000)。该组织担心在未来十年里,将另有388,000,000人死于上述这些疾病。


Malias

在东南亚各国,慢性病的发病率也是居高不下,在2005年所有死亡中占54%。世界卫生组织的有关人员说,泰国的情况尤其严重。根据他们的估计,在短短的两年时间里,5到12岁过度肥胖儿童数已从12.2%上升到了15.6%。过度肥胖通常是成年人的问题,但它却已在较贫困地区随处可见。在那些地区,与这种流行病有着密切关系的方便食品贵得让人望而却步。

在中国,过度肥胖也正在成为一场在局部地区发病率很高的流行病。2003年的一项区域调查结果显示,从总体上说,中国的过度肥胖率在不足5%到某些地区的20%之间。然而,最让人担心的是年轻人中过度肥胖症发病率高。根据这项调查,在武汉,有8.9%的10到12岁之间的儿童过度肥胖。北京等一些地区的调查结果还显示出过度肥胖与性别有关。10%的10到12岁北京男孩过度肥胖,这比在同一调查中的肥胖女孩数的3倍还多。

责任是多方面的

有些人天生容易发胖,这可以轻松地解释为什么全世界肥胖人口不断增加,但是导致过度肥胖的确切原因却不是单一的。

饮食变化对肥胖症流行的“贡献”非常显著。过度肥胖常常由食品加工过程中过多添加糖和盐引起。泰国健康促进基金会新近的一项研究发现,在对700种尚未包装食品的抽样中,超过90%的食品糖、脂肪和盐含量超标。这三种东西混合后将导致糖尿病、高血压和过度肥胖。

当然,知情者可以通过选择来避免(或减少)食用那些危害健康的食品,但是这项研究认为,拙劣的食品标签会妨碍人们作出正确的决定。例如,在泰国,只有三分之一的抽样食品在外包装上标注食品成分和有关营养方面的信息。研究者们说,就算是有标签,标签上的说明用的也是蝇头小字,而且信息介绍也常让人费解。因而,食品工业本身起码应该承担部分责任。

儿童面临的危险最大

现在,由于口味的变化,泰国的年轻人已经不再对汉堡和薯条嗜吃如命了。但是口味在变化,饮食业也在变化。在泰国的必胜客早已换了新的菜谱,增加了辣味虾汤 (Tum Yum Kung)。比起相对健康的泰国本地速食来,西方的方便食品中脂肪、糖、盐的含量多了3到4倍,它们已经被视为“速食者”之国面临的最大危险之一。

满足东方人的口味以便提高市场份额仅仅是经营策略的一个方面。现在频繁的市场营销活动主要瞄准的是儿童,文化价值观的变化也使得去麦当劳就餐成了生活日益富足和地位不断提高的一种标志。在曼谷,买一个麦当劳“巨无霸”的钱(相当于1.5美元或60铢)足够一个四口之家吃一顿饭。但是泰国的年轻人却会为了打动朋友,尤其是女朋友,而在垃圾食品上不惜重金。类似的潮流在中国中部和东部的许多大都市中也是随处可见。柬埔寨的很多大型购物中心也都设有时尚的西餐馆,那可是高收入者才去得起的地方。

过度肥胖本来不应该是儿童所要面临的问题,但是年龄只有3岁的肥胖儿童却也并不罕见。其中那些成年后又过度肥胖的人将面临很大的风险(尤其在发展中国家)——越来越容易得病,而且他们所依靠的医疗体系又很不健全,不能提供有效的、人们承担得起的治疗。中国只有非常基本的社会保障体系,医院也是唯利润是图,因此只有那些看得起病的人才能看病。

世界儿童肥胖研究杂志认为,全世界过度肥胖儿童的数量将会猛增,这会妨碍许多国家国民健康状况的改善。世界卫生组织认为,在接下来的十年里,肿瘤患者和过早死亡人数将会有增无减,中国、印度和俄罗斯将因此而损失十亿美元。仅中国,就将因心脏病、中风和糖尿病而在未来十年里损失5580亿的国民收入。泰国、马来西亚、印度尼西亚和其他重要的亚洲国家的发展水平和消费水平正在与西方接近。


Robad0b

不完整的答复

伦敦的世界过度肥胖任务组织主席菲利普·詹姆斯教授认为,政治意图和不断提高的公众意识将决定过度肥胖问题是否继续存在。

 “很显然,”他说:“是公众和部长们欣然接受了成人过度肥胖的问题……然后他们又常常轻易地指责那些过度肥胖者的窘况,而从不去想想那些人的过度肥胖是否是由他们在过去的几十年里精心制定的政策和工业的发展所招致的。

政治精英们已考虑将5个国际性非政府组织结成联盟,名为全球预防同盟,它已宣称将在全世界范围内采取行动,控制由过度肥胖导致的慢性病。该同盟说,过度肥胖症具有和HIV/AIDS同等的重要性和危害性。

詹姆斯教授认为,仅仅靠减少死亡率是不够的,任何医疗体系和经济体制都承担不起慢性病患者螺旋式上升的费用。唯一的办法就是我们应该认识到我们必须彻底改变健康食品的供应方式和减少高脂高糖高盐食品的摄入量。

过度肥胖对于中国来说是一个新的挑战,因为中国在1961年遭受了严重的饥荒,直到70年代中期才解决必要食品短缺问题,直到2005年还接受世界粮食计划署的食品救济。但是,办法也还是有的。世界卫生组织的有关人员说,心脏病、中风、2型糖尿病的年轻患者中,有80%可以通过健康饮食来预防得病。现在唯一缺乏的是用政治力量来规范、教育和管理强大的食品工业。


首页图片由 Afdn

作者简介:罗格•达汤德细胞及分子生物学博士。曾在非洲任教,在欧洲从事科学家工作,并为一个HIV/AIDS组织志愿筹款。最近,担任项目协调人,该项目主要处理胰岛素抗力和过度肥胖问题。


相关的报道:

1.  肥胖症对健康的影响

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

亚洲肥胖儿童问题

感谢Roger Tatoud博士对亚洲肥胖儿童问题的关注,希望肥胖症这一肆意发达国家的疾病不要在亚洲年轻一代横行。
正如Dr.Roger 指出的那样,不良的饮食习惯, 西方的洋垃圾快餐食品是诱发儿童肥胖症的元凶。
在中国,一方面虽然许多地区仍存在儿童营养不足的问题,一方面儿童肥胖问题又日益严重。儿童是我们的未来,中央政府在这个问题上应当引起足够的重视,及早采取措施。

李新忠

Asia's childhood obesity problem

I thank Dr. Roger Tatoud for bringing attention to childhood obesity in Asia. I hope that Asia's younger generation are not caught up in the obesity epidemic that has swept through the developed world.
As Dr. Tatoud points out, bad eating habits and Western-style junk food are prime culprits in causing childhood obesity. In China, whilst childhood malnutrition is still a problem in many areas, childhood obesity is also an increasingly severe problem. Children are the future; the government should give this issue due emphasis and take action as soon as possible.
-Li Xinzhong

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匿名 | Anonymous

该现状确实让人担忧

目前该情形确实有越演越烈的趋势,着实令人担忧,相关主管部门应采取相应措施,不要在仅仅停留在所谓的政绩上

A worrying situation

At present,this situation truly is worsening,making people feel really worried.
Responsible departments should take appropriate action, not rest on their laurels.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

除非政府废除晨练,否则过度肥胖不会是真正的问题

这个现象是存在的,但是这大部分出现在中国东部的一些富裕城市里。就是说,甚至在上海和北京挨着那些参加规律运动的居民的一些西部的人会感觉不舒服。走访中国任意一所学校,操场上都是打篮球、踢足球等的男生女生们--很可能就是晨练的产物。在中国一些学生不喜欢强制的晨练。事实上,一些学校/大学地区可能只是松散地坚持运动。但是这种专制的/遗传的主动性是自小开始就鼓励运动时的中国学生应该发扬的东西,而不是骑着自行车闲逛、抽烟。好的和坏的习惯都是在小时后形成的。

Obesity won't be a real problem unless the party abolishes morning exercises

This phenomenon is real, but largely restricted to China's eastern Provinces where the wealthy live. That said, even in Shanghai and Beijing westerners feel uncomfortable next to the locals who mostly engage in regular exercise. Pay a visit to any school in China and the playgrounds will be packed with girls and boys playing basketball, football etc - the product, most likely, of morning exercises. Some students in China dislike mandatory morning exercises. Indeed, some schools/universities areas may only adhere loosely to their practice. But this authoritarian/paternal initiative is something which students in China (and the West) ought to salute since it actually encourages exercise from an early age, rather than hanging around bike-shed smoking cigarettes. Both bad and good habits form early in life.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

希望政府及早控制

其实我觉得中国的传统食物并没有太大的问题。而一定要注意的,是美国的快餐垃圾食物进驻中国的情况。如上面评论指出的,中国东部沿海地区比较发达的城市有肥胖症的增加。而就是因为发达地区,麦当劳和KFC就特别多。所以我觉得政府应该控制麦当劳和KFC的数量。并且要求食品产业在食品包装上著名食物的营养成分。让年轻一代开始注意事物的热量和脂肪含量。否则以后肥胖会成为中国又一基本国情。

Expecting timely control from the government

As a matter of fact, I don't think traditional Chinese foods should account for this. We must pay attention to the expension of American fastfood, or junk food, in China. As mentioned in the above comment, obesity is on the rise in Eastern China, the relatively developed cities by the sea. And they have lots of McDonald's and KFC. Therefore, I think that government should control the number of McDonald's and KFC in China. And they should require the food industry to include nutritional components of their products on the package. By doing so, our younger generation will start to pay attention to calorie and fat content of their food. Otherwise, obesity will become the next fundamental national condition of China.

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匿名 | Anonymous

不应允许

我总是不明白为什么有些大的企业总是能不用顾及环境的影响,就通过生产不健康的产品而获得巨大利益,对他们应该才采取一些法律措施才行。比如说征税,就像对待烟草产品一样,况且食物味道和其质量并不互相冲突。美国善待动物组织(PETA)最近就在对Burger King的声讨中取得了些许进展。

http://www.goveg.com/murderk_release.asp

Shouldn't be allowed

I've often wondered how these big companies get away with making so much money on such unhealthy products - in any part of the world. Not to mention the environmental impacts of their packaging and farming. There's got to be a way to legislate against it. Or to tax it, like cigarettes. Surely, it couldn't taste worse, by being of better quality? The PETA in the US has recently won some victories against/with Burger King after their "Murder King" campaign.

http://www.goveg.com/murderk_release.asp

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

是个大问题

肥胖是个大问题。个人认为,政府还是不惜要制定法律来制止饮食行业。政府能做的是,让过多食用快餐食品会造成的坏影响公之于众,加以宣传。最重要的是,父母应该意识到快餐食品对健康,尤其是对儿童健康潜在的危协。 Jane

the problem is big

Obesity is a problem. Personally, i think there is no need for government to enact law to curb the food industry, what the official should do is to publicize the bad effects of eating too much fast food for its citizens.The most important is the parents should know the latent danger of having dinner in fast food restaurant,especially for the children.
Jane

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匿名 | Anonymous

自约、生活方式和责任

1.中餐比西餐和快餐来得健康。任何一项都比快餐健康,那还有谁选择食用快餐呢?消费者。没有任何一家快餐公司试图隐藏他们所生产的食品。你可以看见油炸的薯条和汉宝被置在烧烤架上所发出的声音。走入或离开快餐店是你自己的选择。中餐并不比西餐来得健康,并且在某一方面当你附加沙拉、烤肉和清蒸项目时比较没那么的健康。许多中菜式是属于油炸的。因此,尽管你吃了些什么,若是生活在缺乏活动性质的生活方式中,这么一来你并没有消耗所食用的能量。许多华裔都习惯以骑脚踏车为运动的方式,然而目前大部分的人都没有这么做(至少50岁以下的一群)。当学生们成为上班一族的时候,这种趋向将更是日益减少,因为他们每天有10-12小时的时间是座在办公室的位置,下班后则回家观赏DVD或者出外购物。2.“然而,中国学生必须敬佩的是这种独裁主义/家长自发性的方式,实际上是始于年少时期。”那种“自发性 ”的方式只是占据中国的一小部分,更属于支配性的问题。专制主义不是解决问题的方法。假设如此,中国的环境将比美国或者欧洲来得洁净。nanheyangrouchuan

self control, lifestyle and responsibility

1. Chinese food is healthier than Western food and fast food.

Anything is healthier than fast food and who chooses to eat fast food? The consumer. No fast food company attempts to hide what it produces. You can see the french fries sitting in oil and hear the burgers on the grill. It is your choice to walk into or out of the fast food restaurant.
Chinese food is no healthier than western food and in some ways less healthy when you included salads, baked meats and steamed items. Many chinese dishes are fried in oil.

And no matter what you eat, living a sedentary lifestyle means you are not using the energy you consume. While many chinese used to ride bikes and do exercises, many now do not (at least those under 50). This tendency increases as students become office workers and sit around in a cubicle for 10-12 hours per day then go home to watch DVDs or go shopping.

2. "But this authoritarian/paternal initiative is something which students in China (and the West) ought to salute since it actually encourages exercise from an early age,"

That "initiative" is a small part of China's much bigger governance problems.
Authoritarianism is not the answer to anything. If it was, China's environment would be cleaner than the US's or Europe's.

nanheyangrouchuan

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匿名 | Anonymous

肥胖和转基因食品

我觉得中国的传统食物并没有太大的问题。而一定要注意的,是美国的快餐垃圾食物进驻中国的情况,
在中国大城市里,KFC最多,儿童最喜欢去吃肯德鸡,很多热恋中的 男女也喜欢,但是大家都知道里面最多的是鸡腿,鸡翅,薯条,一只鸡只有两条腿和两个翅膀,世界上这么多KFC,哪里来这么多鸡腿和鸡翅,有的报道说一只鸡能长四条腿和六枝翅膀,鸡毛还没长出来,就进了KFC了,是什么让鸡长了特异功能,在药力还没被鸡吸收完时就成了人们的食品,人吃了能不发生变化吗?试问,过渡肥胖的儿童是不是喜欢吃肯德鸡? Jackson

Obesity and GM food

I think chinese traditional food is not a big problem. However, it is must be aware of the situation of American junk food comes into China. There are highest number of KFC in big cities in China. Children like KFC. Lots of people, who are in love, like it as well. People know that most of the food are chicken legs, wings and chips. There are so many KFC, but one chicken has only two legs and two wings, where are these chicken legs and wings from. According to some report, one chicken can have four legs and six wings. These chicken have already in KFC even before they have feather. What make chicken have this kind of ability? They become food before the medicine fully affected. Changes must happen to those who eat them. Do children have obesity like KFC?

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匿名 | Anonymous

不只是快餐

在生活方式改变的今天,青少年肥胖确实会是一个严重问题。不只是快餐,还有家庭膳食结构改变,以及活动减少。单纯地说中餐是否比西餐健康是不合适的,也得分类。对这个问题进行干预需要多方面的努力,从政府角度来说,强制性标准是很难的,可以对食品加工产业进行引导,同时投入资源加强健康教育和全民体育运动。

Fast food isn’t the only factor

With an unhealthy lifestyle today, obesity among youngsters is set to be a serious problem. Apart from fast food, changed household diets and lack of exercise is also to blame for the phenomenon. It is inappropriate to claim that Chinese food is healthier than western food. Instead the two categories should be compared case by case. We should take a multi-thronged approach to this problem. On the part of government, it can issue guidelines for food processing industry since it is hard to introduce mandatory standards. The government can also invest in health education and promote popular participation in sports and exercise.

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匿名 | Anonymous

自我控制

无论如何,不管政府和社会对此有多大责任,我都认为一个人应该为自己负责,为自己的健康负责。人不是一天变胖的,一个人应该懂得控制自己的饮食结构,也应该懂得保护自己孩子的健康。控制自己不要长胖,我认为这很简单。
yansy

Self-control

Anyway, whatever responsibilities the government and society hold for this, I think one should be responsible for his/her own health. One does not get fat in one day, and one should know how to control his/her own diet, as well as their children's. I think it's rather easy to prevent oneself from putting on weight.
yansy