文章 Articles

化学农业威胁中国水资源

在化肥污染造成太湖暴发大面积蓝藻之后的十八个月,中国农民的施肥习惯有改变吗?绿色和平中国部分组织公布了调查结果。

Article image

2007年在中国东部的太湖发生的大规模蓝藻爆发使两百万人受到了"饮用水危机" 的影响。流入太湖的大量“营养”污染物(氮、磷等)造成了蓝藻严重爆发,使无锡人的水龙头中流出带着腥臭味的绿色的水。这些流入太湖的污染物来自于农业、工业以及生活废水。其中,大量施用在农田里的化学合成肥料是“主犯”之一。这次水危机让无锡人深刻体会到了太湖污染的后果。历年来,政府对太湖污染的治理已经投入了几百亿的资金,2008年,太湖的情况又是如何呢?这一年,太湖蓝藻卷土重来,甚至比往年发生的更早。当绿色和平的工作人员看到太湖的蓝藻时,我们感到很痛心,但是并不意外。

化学农业(以来大量化学合成肥料和农药投入的农业生产方式)相关的藻类爆发事件不仅仅影响了太湖,也影响了中国其他地区的重要水系。例如:2008年6月,黄河流域最大的淡水湖——内蒙古乌梁素海——发生了严重的黄藻爆发,根本原因是河套平原灌区农田中流失的大量化肥,通过排干渠系统不断汇入乌梁素海造成的污染;安徽巢湖也是备受化学农业污染困扰多年的一个重要湖泊。

相关政府部门已经设计和实施了多项政策以应对农业污染。比如:鼓励生态农业,循环利用农业废弃物。另外,农业部从2005年开始推行一项全国性的化肥减量政策——测土配方施肥 ,项目实施三年后,全国已累计推广测土配方施肥面积达9亿亩次。

绿色和平在2008年3月至11月期间在太湖周边进行调查,以检验测土配方施肥在这一区域减少化肥用量、控制农业污染方面的进展。调查中,绿色和平的工作人员在直接流入太湖的两条小河采集了25批次水样,并访问了当地农民,记录他们施用化肥的时间、种类和用量。水样被送往实验室,检验其中与化学农业相关的总氮、硝态氮、总磷等物质含量。

水样检测结果显示,当地在开展测土配方施肥工作3年后,水污染依然严重。

20批次样品中的总氮浓度超过国家地表水Ⅴ类标准,其余5批次水样超过Ⅳ 类水标准。这就意味着水样采集地的水不能作为饮用水源地,也不适宜人体直接接触。超过Ⅴ类水标准的水,甚至不能用于工业生产和农业灌溉。硝态氮主要来自于化肥流失,水样检测结果显示在施用化肥后,由于降雨或者灌溉的冲刷作用,使水中含有高浓度的硝态氮。检测结果说明,化肥流失造成的农业污染仍是一个主要污染源。农民们也正是,他们的化肥施用量几乎比十年前增加了一倍。

太湖的农业污染仍旧是对无锡的一个威胁。农业污染,同样也是中国其他地方存在的问题。在2005年至2007年,测土配方施肥实施的三年中,每年的全国化肥施用量都要比上一年增加近200万吨(见下图)。与此同时,中国的化肥生产量也一直在上升。测土配方施肥项目开始于2005年,但是并没有给中国的化学合成肥料施用量带来拐点。大量的化肥仍旧在源源不断地进入水中造成污染,并最终危害人类自身。

 

 

年份 农用化肥生产量(折纯)吨 农用化肥施用量(折纯)吨
2002 37,910,000 43,394,000
2003 38,813,100 46,366,000
2004 48,048,200 46,366,000
2005 51,778,600 47,662,000
2006 53,450,500 49,277,000
2007 52,485,800(1月~11月) 51,078,000(全年)
2008 44,740,000(1月~9月)  

 

当政府投入大笔资金清理藻类时,真正的解决之道——生态农业——却没有得到足够的推广。

在太湖西岸的宜兴,有一个坐落在山脚下的美丽的村子。那里有200亩由“鸭子军团”守卫的水稻田。“稻田养鸭”是一种典型的生态农业模式。鸭子在稻田中放养,它们吃掉稻田里的害虫,杂草也被踩死或者吃掉。鸭子的游动将更多的氧气带入水中,让水稻长得更加强壮。有机肥和鸭粪为水稻提供了足够的营养。化学合成肥料和农药不再是必需品。

与“稻田养鸭”类似,还有很多种不同的生态农业模式可以让农民收获充足、安全的粮食,而且不必以破坏环境为代价。与测土配方施肥相比,生态农业不依赖化学合成肥料,而是充分利用牲畜粪便、秸杆等农业“废弃物”制造有机肥料和沼气。尽管已经有一些旨在推动生态农业的政策,但这些政策的内容和执行仍需细化和加强。需要有更多的财力、物力和人力支持生态农业的推动,让农民、消费者、环境都从中受益。

中国政府急需对测土配方施肥的效果重新进行评估,因为这项政策只是针对化肥使用者(农民)的,而且仍旧是以依赖化学合成肥料投入为基础。如果政府想要切实减少化肥的施用量,就需要制定针对化肥生产者的生产减量政策,这其中可以包括减少对化学合成肥料的生产补贴和优惠。另外,还需要制定一系列鼓励有机肥生产、推广和高效利用的激励政策。

没有更多的时间可以浪费了,中国农业急需从根本上转变农业生产方式。

 

首页图片kongharald

发表评论 Post a comment

评论通过管理员审核后翻译成中文或英文。 最大字符 1200。

Comments are translated into either Chinese or English after being moderated. Maximum characters 1200.

评论 comments

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

医疗废弃物用作肥料

1999年我曾经去过广东省西南的荔枝和龙眼的种植区,我发现了在茂名,医疗废弃物和其他城市垃圾混合在一起被用作新栽植物的肥料。这个地区是丘陵地带,水土流失让这些废弃物一览无余,碎瓶子,布料,等,垃圾都露在土地的表面。有一些还被风吹散。我当时向当地领导指出了这种恶劣的行为,他们告诉我说一定会出面制止。2003年,我再次拜访同样的地区时,农业专家告诉我,一些地方已经制止了这种行为,但是在该地区的别的地方还在继续,至少在别的南方省份都还在继续。那年,中国政府制定了医疗废弃物必须焚毁的法规,试图尽快在全中国建立许多焚烧炉来处理这些废弃物。我猜想,农业使用医疗废弃物作肥料的现象应该是绝迹了。2003年以后我就没再回去看过。
W. Parham
[email protected]
本评论由 夏婷婷翻译

Medical waste as fertilizer

I visited the extensive litchi/longan plantings in southwest Guangdong in 1999 and found that near Maoming, medical wastes mixed with other city wastes were being used as fertilizer for newly-planted trees. This is a hilly region and water erosion had exposed the waste -- shot bottles, cloth materials, etc.-- leaving this litter on the soil surface. Some of the waste also was scattered by the wing. I pointed out this hazardous practice to local authorities and was told that the practice would cease.

I visited the same area in 2003 and was told by trusted agricultural experts that the practice had been stopped at some sites but that it was still practiced in the area and even in at least one other southern province. That year China's government established regulations requiring all medical waste be incinerated. The intent was to have numerous incinerators in operation throughout China as soon as possible. I assume that the agricultural use of medical waste had ended. I have not visited those sites since 2003.

W. Parham
[email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

农民无奈的选择

我想很多农民也明白,化肥和农药不是他们最好的选择,却是他们目前无奈的选择。化肥越施越多,土壤却越来越贫瘠;农药越用越强,害虫却不见少。更何况其价格不菲,相信农民也未必真的情愿选择化肥和农药吧。可是目前他们却没有更好的选择,所以只好继续这种恶性循环。我觉得在这个问题上,政府的主导作用是非常重要的。如果政府能够提供合理(既简单又便宜)的生态农业模型,并且给予政策上的支持,我相信很多农民会愿意尝试的。

Farmer’s non-alternative choice.

I believe many farmers know as well that the chemical fertilisers are not their best choice, but they have no alternative. The more fertiliser, the poorer the land is; the more pesticide, the more the pest is. Considering the high price of fertiliser, I believe the farmers are not really willing to those them. But they don’t have better choice but to keep this vicious circle. I think government’s guide on this issue is very important. If government can set reasonable (simple & cheap) ecology farm model, and provide policy support, I believe many farmers will be like to try that.

Translated by Fangfang CHEN

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态农业

往往“生态农业”仅是一个时髦的名词,体现时代的潮流,而它的迫切性有的时候并没有被大众真正的接受。投资、收益、维护,这些不是一人之力或数人之力可以完成的。如果政府和社会能让广大的农民像相信化肥可以增产增收一样相信生态农业,让生态农业真正为农民认可,而不仅仅是道义上的,相信会有所改变。

Ecological Agriculture

Oftentimes “ecological agriculture” is just a fashionable word, expressing a trend of the times, and its urgency is not really accepted by the masses. Investment, earnings, and safeguards—these are not things that one person or a handful of people can accomplish on their own. If government and society can make an extensive number of peasants believe that fertilizer will increase production, then in the same way, they can also make peasants accept that ecological agriculture is more effective. If the peasants only believe that ecological agriculture is a moral method of production, they will only make slight changes instead of a full transformation.

(Comment translated by Michelle Deeter)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

说到生态农业

说到生态农业,我就想起以前用大粪做肥料的农业生产方式了,这应该算是生态农业的一种吧。不过弄粪肥很麻烦,又臭又恶心,所以农民宁愿选择化肥。更何况粪肥容易传播寄生虫病,不卫生。不知道现在有没有比较好的生态农业方式?

Speaking of ecological agriculture

Speaking of ecological agriculture makes me think of earlier agriculture production methods that used night soil as fertilizer. This should be considered as a type of ecological agriculture. But since using manure is troublesome, smelly as well as nauseating, peasants would rather use chemical fertilizer. Not only that, but manure can easily spread parasites and diseases, and can be unsanitary. I don’t know myself, but are there any better ecological agricultural methods?

(Comment translated by Michelle Deeter)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生态农业

答4号作者,我听说有的地方在稻田里养螃蟹,不知道这是不是和“稻田养鸭”类似。说起来,以前的农田都靠青蛙除害虫的,根本不用农药。现在因为有很多人抓青蛙卖钱,农田里的青蛙锐减,农民只好买农药了,真是罪过啊。

Ecological Agriculture

In response to comment number 4, I heard that some places raise crabs in rice paddies. I don’t know if this is similar to “raising ducks in rice paddies.” Speaking of which, farmers used to rely on frogs to get rid of pests; farm chemicals were not at all necessary. Now that many people are catching frogs and selling them for money, frog populations in farmlands are in steep decline. Peasants are forced to buy farm chemicals, it’s a sin.

(Comment translated by Michelle Deeter)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

真正的变化

事实上,没有人愿意指出的是,如果想要在中国见到实质性的环境变化,首先要做的是深度政治改革。媒体可以自由报道环境事件,公民能够控告公司和政府相互勾结和破坏环境,领导人回应他的选举人的需求,以及建立一个整体的动态系统允许人民有更多的政治参与以便在政治过程中维护自己的权益,这些是中国所需要的。使这个国家停止那些鼓励不惜一切代价进行“断首”发展的政策,以便预防社会不稳定,这就是一个开始。中国共产党浪费了四十多年的时间从事社会实验和政治斗争,这导致了无尽的灾难,然而想要以环境为代价的发展来弥补这些失去的时间不仅是不可持续的,而且会伤害我们的后代子孙。
(本评论由关晓宇翻译)

Real change

The fact of the matter, that nobody seems to want to address is that in order to see real environmental change in China, there first has to be a significant level of political reform. Freedom of the press to report on environmental incidents, the ability of citizens to sue companies and their governments for collusion and environmental offenses, leaders that are responsive to the needs of their constituents, and an overall more dynamic system that allows the population greater political participation so as to vindicate themselves through the political process is what is needed. Allowing the country to cease policies that encourage break neck growth at all costs, in order to prevent social instability is a start. The Chinese Communist Party wasted more than forty years with social experiments and political motivated campaigns that led to untold disasters, yet trying to make up for all the lost time with development at the expense of the environment is not only unsustainable but will harm generations to come.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

表格1中的错误

表格1中的数据很有趣,不过,我想第一栏应该读作“农用化肥使用量”(而不是生产量)。如果能注明这些数据的来源也会对读者有所裨益。Eva Sternfelf

(本评论由关晓宇翻译)

Mistake in Table 1

I found the data in table 1 interesting, however, I guess column 1 should read "chemical fertilizer use" (not production). Would also be useful if you could quote the source for these data.
Eva Sternfeld

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

沸石和动物粪便

回应评论4: 虽然猪的粪便是一种很好的肥料,但是很多农民不愿意用它,因为使用猪粪的操作不便而且气味难闻. 沸石是中国拥有的一种天然且质地细密的矿石, 把沸石与动物粪便混合在一起能去除粪便里的铵和水分从而减少气味并使粪便干得更快, 这样就使动物粪肥更方便使用.加工和使用沸石很简便.农民就可以方便用干的沸石和粪便的混合物给农作物施肥. 沸石使粪便中的铵释放出来供农作物吸收,同时也增加了土壤的肥力. 干燥的粪便还能为土壤提供其他营养和有机物.这样动物粪便造成的水质污染问题就大大减轻了. 华南农业大学(广州)进行了关于沸石应用于农业的研究.联系华南农业大学李华新(音同)院长: W. Parham [email protected]
本评论由周瑜翻译

Zeolites and animal waste

In response to comment no. 4:

Although swine manure is a rich fertilizer, many farmers avoid using it because of its undesirable handling properties and unpleasant odor. Zeolites are natural, fine-grained minerals that exist in China. When they are mixed with animal wastes they trap ammonium and water from the wastes thus reducing the odor, accelerate its drying, and improve its handling characteristics. Processing and application of zeolites is simple.

Because the final product is easy to handle, farmers can use the dry zeolite-manure mixture to fertilize their crops. The zeolites release the ammonium for the crop’s use and also improve the soil’s ability to hold needed plant nutrients; the dried manure provides other nutrients and organic matter to benefit the soil as well. Pollution of streams with raw animal waste is reduced significantly. Work on zeo-agriculture is carried out at the South China Agricultural University (SCAU) in Guangzhou. Contact Dean Li Huaxing at SCAU.

W. Parham
[email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

回复:表格1里的错误

Eva你好,非常感谢你指出这个错误,表格已经改好了。实际上,第二栏指的是使用量。数据来自绿色和平组织自己的调查。完整的报告请见这里http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/china/ch/press/reports/taihu-lake-blue-algae-pollution.pdf。祝好,Sam(中外对话)。
(本评论由关晓宇翻译)

Re: mistake in Table 1

Hi Eva --
Many thanks for pointing out the mistake: the table has now been corrected. Column 2, in fact, referred to usage. The data is from Greenpeace's own investigation. See the full report here
Best,
Sam (chinadialogue)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

另一个视角(wxai)

分析化学农业污染水资源,讨论一条减轻的出路。我个人建议:一是大力推广滴灌和微灌,政府给于高的补助或补贴,减少农业用水资源,也就减少了化肥流失,当然也就减少了化肥使用量,当然还有农药的用量,因此节省下来的水资源,可以作为饮用水安全的保障,也可以使生态用水量增加,是一个好的良性循环。二是,化肥使用本身不是问题,麻烦的是农药,建议国家搞一个真正的名录出来,鼓励绿色农药的使用,那些毒性大的农药,是不是在工业生产中就该禁绝掉,而不是一呼再呼,起不少什么作用,希望绿色中国搞点这方面的调查数据,提供一点细节

Another perspective

Analyze the pollution of chemical agriculture to water, and discuss an approach to improve the situation. My personal suggestions are as following: firstly, promote drip irrigation and micro-irrigation for which the government could offer high grants or subsidies. This would reduce the usage of water in agriculture, then decrease the loss of fertilizers, thus would cut the usage of chemical fertilizers as well as, of course, pesticides. Therefore the water saved would guarantee the safety of drinking water, and increase ecological water consumption. This is a good virtuous cycle. Secondly, the usage of pesticides, instead of chemical fertilizers, is a problem. I suggest the country make a real directory, encourage using green pesticides, and decice whether pesticides of high toxicity should be banned in industrial production. Repeated appealing does little use. Hope Greenpeace China could do some investigation in this aspect and provide some data.