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奥运之后,北京的环境如何保障?

环境一直是北京2008年奥运会组织者最担忧的问题之一。李泰格问道,虽然中国政府有能力在奥运会期间解决这一问题,但奥运过后,情况又将如何呢?

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2008年奥运会倒计时一周年之际,北京的环境质量成为了人们最大的担心。

国际奥委会主席雅克·罗格(Jacques Rogge)对美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)表示,如果届时北京的空气质量太糟糕,一些与耐力有关的奥运会项目,如赛程长达6小时的自行车赛,有可能延期或推迟到另外一天。广州《南方都市报》的一篇评论甚至说,如果北京的空气质量不能被改善,北京奥运会很可能成为历史上空气污染最为严重的奥运会之一。

这些担心或许是多余的,因为中国政府正全力以赴,保障奥运会期间北京的环境质量。

本月17日开始,北京限车四日,全市机动车分单双号行驶,预计每天停驶约130万辆机动车。北京市环保局会监测机动车出行减少后空气质量的改善情况,为奥运空气质量保障摸索经验。如此大规模的环境试验实属罕见,政府部门的决心和能力可见一斑。

机动车限行仅仅是北京计划在奥运会期间采取的临时措施之一。北京的《法制晚报》还透露,北京奥运会前后约两个月,北京的部分企业将停产,施工工地将全面停工,北京周边的山西、天津、河北和内蒙古也会采取一些临时性的控制措施。

目前,北京正在修订奥运会空气质量保障方案。北京市环保局副局长杜少中本月13日接受新京报网站访谈时没有透露保障方案的细节。但他说,奥运会期间“肯定要对机动车污染排放、施工扬尘,以及其它对空气产生严重影响的生产、工作过程采取更严格的环境保护措施”。

可以预计,这些不惜成本的临时性措施,完全有可能使奥运会期间北京的空气质量达到要求。但问题在于,奥运会之后北京的环境又该如何保障呢?

如今,北京的污染大户首都钢铁公司已经开始搬迁,机动车尾气成为了北京的主要大气污染源。中国政府鼓励发展汽车产业,公众则渴望车轮上的生活。和中国其它城市一样,北京市的私家车数量正以惊人的速度增加。截止今年5月,全北京的机动车保有量突破300万辆,其中大部分是私家车。

对北京而言,比空气污染更为严峻的挑战是水资源短缺。北京人均水资源占有量不足300立方米,远低于国际公认的人均1000立方米的缺水下限。为了保证北京的用水,河北、山西等水资源本来就贫乏的省份,这些年来一直在忍痛向北京输水。而奥运场馆和道路等配套设施的建设,奥运期间生活用水和环境用水的需求,以及奥运带来的GDP增长,都会促进北京水资源的消耗和水环境的污染。

来自南水北调办公室的消息说,南水北调中线工程京石段(石家庄段到北京段)工程将在2008年奥运会前具备通水条件,作为应急情况下从河北省四座水库调水进京的通道。南水北调是中国正在建设的远距离引水工程。其中,南水北调中线工程始于湖北省的丹江口水库,止于北京,预计2010年完工。

但南水北调并不能彻底解决北京的水资源短缺。清华大学教授、中国工程院院士钱易2000年就在《中国环境报》上撰文说,南水北调仅能为北京提供每年10余亿立方米的水,而且成本极高,用户难以承受。她还警告说,“倘若水源和污染不能有效解决,北京便有可能真正面临迁都之忧”。北京市副市长牛有成去年9月在北京举行的第五届世界水大会上也承认,随着人口规模的不断增长,水资源短缺已成为制约北京发展的主要因素。

这样一个水资源极度缺乏的城市却在迅速扩张,实在令人不可思议。截至2006年底,北京市的人口达到1581万。由于北京是中国的首都,聚集着大量的社会资源,从而吸引了相当多的外来人口。与上一年相比,北京市的人口增加了43万,相当于一个中等城市的人口。凡此种种,无一不在加剧北京的交通拥挤和空气污染,加剧水资源的压力。从这种意义上来讲,北京并未走上可持续发展的道路。

2008年奥运会对北京无限制的扩张大概起到了推波助澜的作用。不论对中国,还是对世界而言,奥运会在中国举行都是一件幸事。但我有时会想,申办奥运会主办权的为什么是北京,而不是一个水资源相对宽裕、人口压力相对较小的中国城市呢?北京有信心保障奥运会期间的空气和水,是否也有信心在奥运会之后解决城市环境不堪重负的难题?

北京市环保局副局长杜少中说,改善空气质量的目的,不是仅仅为奥运会,根本上是为了在北京生活的1500多万北京市民和来北京工作生活的外地人、外国人。诚哉斯言。不过,奥运会之后改善空气质量的任务非常艰巨。为了奥运会,北京的私家车主们可以暂时做一些牺牲,少开几天甚至几个星期的车,但总不能要求他们永远闲置爱车。奥运会期间可能采取的一些应急措施,如百万辆以上汽车停驶、部分工厂停产、施工工地停工等,注定难以持续。

然而无论如何,决策者仍然可以从奥运会空气质量保障方案中吸取经验教训。举个例子,倘若机动车限行确实对北京的空气质量和交通状况大有改进,政府可以考虑在郊区修建更多停车场,提高私家车在中心城区行驶和停泊的费用,以此鼓励私家车主换乘公共交通进入中心城区。

或者我们也可以开始考虑“去中心化”。这有两层含义。第一层含义是降低中心城区的功能。换句话说,政府可以通过行政命令和市场手段,促使一些机构和公司从中心城区搬到通州、顺义、大兴等卫星城,让那些居住在卫星城的市民免去早晚奔波之苦,同时减轻环境压力。第二层含义是降低北京的功能。河北和山西的水资源本来就十分紧缺,却还要勒紧裤腰带,向北京供水。原因很简单,北京是首都,集政治中心、经济中心、文化中心于一体。但这个中心却没有很好地带动周边地区经济和文化的发展。既然北京水资源如此短缺,为何不采取措施,鼓励部分机构和人口外迁呢?

类似的措施还有很多。毕竟我们都不希望碧水蓝天映衬下的北京,仅仅是2008年夏天的昙花一现。明年之后,如何能够将良好的环境留得长久一些,再长久一些,或许是我们的决策机构们现在就需要提前去考虑的问题。

 

 

李泰格, 驻北京的环境与科学记者,擅长深度报道。1997年获四川大学工学硕士;2003-2004年,获Knight科学新闻奖学金资助,在麻省理工学院做访问学者。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

好文!

文字功夫了得!观察力与思考力亦了得!
我与作者有同样的担心,生怕这为奥运而做的环保努力只是昙花一现,而我们这些北京人却要长久生活在这里。

Great article!

What a nice piece of writing! Great observatioon and critical thinking! I share the same concerns with the author. We are afraid that the conservation efforts before Olympics would be gone in a blink of an eye, and that we as local residents of Beijing would have to live with it forever.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

迁都?

我不确定是不是同意,但这是个好主意... 我不知道有没有人同意这句话。那首都应该迁往哪里?中国的其它具有充足资源的地方?也许中国读者能给点建议?

SL

Moving the capital?

I don't know if I agree with it, but it's a fascinating idea... I wonder if anyone agrees with it. Where would the capital move to? Is there anywhere in China with adequate resources - maybe Chinese readers have some ideas?
SL

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

让大家响应公共交通服务

世界各大城市商业中心昂贵的停车费并没有制止人们使用司家车。或许政府应该实施短期性的免费公共交通服务,试探人们是否愿意使用公共交通而把司家车置于家中。由此而来, 这对推动首都的交通枢纽可能比较便宜。Geoff

Getting people back to public transport

Higher parking fees in the Central Business Districts of other major cities elsewhere in the world has not detered people from using their cars. Maybe a trial period of 'free public transport' is warranted to see if people would leave their cars at home. It would be cheaper than moving the capital. Geoff

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

北京的公共交通?

楼上两位看来对北京的公共交通状况不太了解。
在北京,买车不行,因为太堵。不买车更不行,因为地铁不发达,很多地方都还没通。坐公交那个拥挤、肮脏你根本无法想象,而且你经常需要在寒风中等半个小时到一个小时才能坐上公车。

Public transportation in Beijing?

It seems that the above two readers don't know the public transportation situation in Beijing very well. In Beijing, it is not a good idea to own a car, because the traffic is always terrible. However it is worse if you don’t have a private car, because the metro line is not big enough and many places are out of the reach of metro. Talking about public transportation, you have no idea how crowded and how dirty it is. And too often you have to wait in the cold wind for more than half an hour, or even an hour, to get on a bus.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我家住在天安门旁边

非常同意作者的建议,北京应该把功能分化,至少不要老在人民大会堂这种城市最中心开会。我家住在天安门旁边,人民大会堂一开重要会议,长安街就禁行,我只能慢慢等待会议代表的车都走完才能走。我经常要坐在车里眼睁睁看着就在家门口却不能到家。每次等半小时左右,真是痛苦,如果是打车至少等掉十几块钱,真是心疼!

I live nearby Tian'anmen Square

I totally agree with the author. Beijing should distribute the use of venues. Instead of holding conferences only in The Great Hall of the People, other venues could be considered to hold conferences. I live nearby Tian’anmen Square. Every time when there’s a conference going on in The Great Hall of the People the whole street will be blocked. I can’t enter until the conference ends. It usually takes me more than half an hour waiting. If I happened to be in a taxi, it would cost more than 10 yuan (about 1 pound), which is pretty expensive.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

为什么总是北京?

作者说得好,为什么不是一个水资源相对宽裕、人口压力相对较小的中国城市呢?
北京已经太拥挤了,太臃肿了,太庞大了,再加上奥运会,如果没有强制市民出行的措施,这城市非爆炸了不可!

Why Beijing?

Good point. “why Beijing bid for the games, rather than another city with a smaller population and greater water resource?”
Beijing is already overcrowded, overstaffed and too huge. When in the 2008 Olympics, if there were not any measures taken to curb the commutes of residents, I am afraid the city will explode under the pressure of population.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

北京尚且如此

即使是在天子脚下的北京,环境问题尚且如此难以解决,那么其它省市呢?

Beijing

Even in our capital city Beijing, it is so difficult to resolve environmental problems, let alone other provinces..

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不知道十七大会在环保方面做出什么决定?

环保应该成为和经济发展并列的头等大事。
水污染最高罚款一百万人民币的力度还远远不够,应该有更严厉的措施。且不说水污染所造成的不知要持续多少年的经济损失,单单是成千上万的人因为水污染患上绝症,我觉得污染者杀头都不为过。

Prospects for 17th National Party Congress

Environmental protection should be taken as equally important as economic growth. The fine for water pollution is only 1 million yuan (about 66,606 pounds) which I think is nowhere near enough. What we need is more severe punishments. Aside from the economic costs caused by water pollution, diseases caused by it have made millions of people suffer. Therefore, I think those who cause serious water pollution should maybe even be executed.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

奥运之后,北京的环境如何保障?

明年之后,将会有食水而战。北京现在所做的一切都是为了奥运会。可想而知,中国人的生命是多么没有价值。改善环境污染是长久之机,而不是仅仅为了奥运会。中国人很可悲可以生活在暗无天日。缺水的省市还得要向皇上供水。好像别的省市都不是人了。由于生活在不同的城市,生命的价值都的低一等。可悲!

After the Olympics, how will Beijing's environment be safeguarded?

After next year, there will be a battle over food and water. Everything Beijing does now is for the Olympics. One can deduce that the lives of ordinary Chinese have no value in this process. The improvement of environmental pollution is a crucial task for the long-term, not just for the Olympics. Yet the tragic thing is that Chinese people live in darkness without sunlight; that counties and municipalities lacking water must still provide water to the "emperor" [Beijing]. It seems that these other counties and municipalities are not considered human. The value of human life there is downgraded. It is tragic!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

公共交通的实情

不幸的是,4号评论传播的是北京的哥们关于公共交通的经典谎言。事实是,虽然地铁具有一定的局限性,北京的公共交通又快又好——而且是的,这里说的确实包含了公交车。文章提到了通州,早在北京政府提出分散发展计划之前,它就已经开始向卫星城镇发展,至少也是向近郊发展了。除了八通线在四惠和地铁相连外,还有很多条巴士线路将通州和CBD连接在一起。覆盖整个通州的938路公共汽车从通州到CBD走高速公路通常在离开通州北缘的半个小时以后就可以到达CBD。

北京不光公共交通非常有效,而且尽管有些负面报道在市区骑车也还算容易(虽然北京自私傲慢的司机们会让骑车妙趣横生)。鼓励更多的人走出他们的小车去骑车将为北京迅速扩张的腰围和迅速恶化的健康状况带来奇迹。

抱歉,但我已经厌倦了这些可悲的理由。北京糟糕的交通和大部分的污染都该完全归咎于北京的司机们以及他们傲慢的自私。

real public transport

Commenter number 4 unfortunately is spreading more of the lies about Beijing's public transport that are so typical of Beijing's car drivers. The fact is that despite the limitations of the subway system, Beijing's public transport is excellent and rapidly improving- and yes, that does include the buses. The article mentions Tongzhou, which began developing as a satellite town- or at least as a dormitory suburb- before the Beijing government even announced its plans for decentralisation. In addition to the Batong light rail line which connects with the subway at Sihui, there are a multitude of bus routes connecting Tongzhou with the CBD. The 938 buses which cover all of Tongzhou and take the expressway from Tongzhou into the CBD generally arrive in the CBD only half an hour after they leave Tongzhou Beiyuan.

Not only is the public transport in Beijing excellent, it is still, despite reports to the contrary, quite easy to cycle in the city (although Beijing's selfish, arrogant drivers can make life interesting for cyclists)- and encouraging more people to get out of their cars and on bikes would work wonders for Beijing's rapidly expanding waistlines and rapidly deteriorating state of health.

Sorry, but I'm tired of these pathetic excuses. The blame for Beijing's terrible traffic and much of its air pollution rests squarely on the shoulders of Beijing's drivers and their arrogant selfishness.