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中国华北,别把雨水赶走

根本解决方案的提出者经常让人意想不到。冯永锋对解决华北地区干旱问题提出了“金点子”建议的北京出租车司机进行了报道。

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今年48岁的刘振祥是个标准的北京的哥”,可他长期以来最关心的既不是油价、份儿钱,也不是交通状况或乘客多少,而是华北的干旱问题,并因此出了名。

528日,北京市环保局召开了一个座谈会,邀请那些为改善北京环境提出有效建议的人现场献计献策。北京市环保局副局长杜少中一眼就看到了刘振祥,他开玩笑说:刘师傅,您发言时简约点,您那两万八千字的论文要是都说了,其他十多位嘉宾就发言不成了。刘振祥说:我明白,我会注意的。论文虽然长,其实核心就是一点,如何让华北地区多蓄点水。

2007326日,北京市环保局推出了建言首都环保,同迎绿色奥运活动。420日,刘振祥开车经过北京市环保局门口时,提交了自己的环保论文--《解密华北地区及中国干旱之根本原因和解决的办法》。这篇论文最终被评为金点子建议。

刘振祥觉得,华北干旱的直接原因就是雨水越来越少。他看到资料上说,原先华北平原年降雨量有的地区能到700800毫米,而从1997年至2005年,北京年均降雨量只有466毫米。他想知道,那233毫米的雨水究竟哪里去了。

终于,在2003年的一天,他明白了:“地下没有水是因为天上不下雨;反过来,天上不下雨又是因为地下没有水,不能提供足够的供蒸发用的水面和水量。这是个互为因果的关系。正如古语所说将欲取之,必先予之。中国地势西高东低,高原地区的水都向东流下去,地面上存不住水,雨自然也就少了。

基于这一认识,刘振祥对大小水库的负作用也做了解读:水库把水闸死,下游河道缺水,整个流域水面、水量减少,供蒸发的水量不足,影响局部气候,致使雨水减少,旱情加剧。

在刘振祥的论文里,解决华北干旱问题的方案有三条:一是封山育林,涵养水源;二是水库适当给下游放水,增补地下水;三是水囤积,即在华北平原农村广大土地上,因地制宜地造出一些湿地、沼泽、池塘,增加区域水体面积,以供旱时灌溉,平时蒸发增雨,同时补充地下水。

这几条建议其实说的是一个中心意思,就是尽可能让地面多留住一些水。

刘振祥的直觉是,降雨量和地面水体有着密切的关系。几十年前,北京的近郊比如安贞桥一带、三里屯往东都是大水塘、芦苇荡,那时候天气就没现在这么旱。而现在华北平原的大小湿地越来越少,降雨量也就越来越少。

刘振祥最推崇水囤积方案,每次见到记者,都要谈起他的忧虑和理想:水囤积就是在大地上制造出数以千计星罗棋布的池塘、沼泽和湿地。如果把大地比喻成一个人,河流就是大地的血管,星罗棋布的池塘就是大地的穴脉。北京地下水超采很厉害,顺义现在打井到七十米深才能见到水。要是采用我的水囤积方法,五年之后,打井到七十米左右,仍旧能够见到水。

6月底,记者随中华环保世纪行来到河南许昌,发现这里的人正在实践一个与刘振祥惊人一致的理念,他们也准备在城市,在广阔的中原大地,巧妙地留住天赐甘霖。

其实从降水条件上看,许昌并不缺水,年降水量在700毫米以上,多的时候能达到1000毫米。许昌市人大主任王金怀说:几年前,我还在当副市长主管水利的时候,就跟水利部门的同志说,你们去研究研究,到底是什么让许昌几千平方公里的大地一年比一年干旱?他们研究了一下后发现,年年增长的工业用水、农业用水是增加了一些水负担,但不是主要影响,真正的影响,在于防洪意识太强,蓄水意识太弱,河道都被截弯取直了,农村过去自然形成的坑塘,不是被填平,就是被抽干。雨水一下来,即使下的是小雨,也马上就被排走,尚未湿润当地,就奔流入海了。

许昌市委市政府大院内,有一个小湖,这个小湖用的水,过去是抽地下水来补充,最近,他们准备改造雨水管,让整个大院里集的雨水,引到这个小湖来。前几年,许昌治理绕城的学院河时,顺着河道有意识地修筑了许多拦水坝,沿着河道的自然走势层层蓄拦雨水,水少时,就蓄积起来,水多时,就漫过小坝,流到下一个小湖。今天,学院河两岸,因为注入了水的灵气,形成了一个新的景观带,成为市民休闲好去处。

王金怀认为,蓄积雨水更广阔的天地在农村。农村有许多自然形成的凹地,有取土遗留的坑塘,有许多没被过度改造的河道。许昌鄢陵县的南坞乡,由于地势低,过去老担心洪涝灾害。几年前,当地领导人突然想,为什么不转变思想,化害为利,让这个地方涝出一个大湖来?该乡开始有意识地利用各种天然坑塘,改直为弯,把当地水系调整成为葡萄串状,互相串通,互相辅助,充分吸取天赐之水。现在,南坞乡成了有许昌有名的湿地之乡,垂钓业、采摘业和生态旅游业都得到了很好的发展,出现了经济发展与生态保护双赢的良好局面。该乡党委书记王国升说:小坑小塘、小沟小河,解决了大问题。大雨时可滞水分洪,干旱时可抽水浇地,平常可增加空气的湿度,又能对地下水常年提供补充。这样的留水工程,投入并不多,做起来也容易,就是一个突破思想观念的问题。大地湿润之后,芦苇什么的湿地植物都长起来了,我们放养了许多螃蟹,每年秋天,吸引好多游客。这几年,按照河塘带动,莲鱼共养,果蔬并连,休闲垂钓,采摘观光的发展思路,我们正在成为许昌的江南。我觉得,这种留水方法,对解决我国北方的干旱问题,很值得推广。

 

冯永锋,中外对话驻北京特约记者

首页图片由JF en Chine拍摄

 

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

需要的是数据和科学的分析,而不是推测和想象

没有底下水是因为没有降水,还是由于没有降水而没有地下水?是这么推测的吗?有什么数据来支持这项说法呢?就以北京这一大城市来说, 每天消耗数百万吨的水,对水生态循环就没有任何影响吗?

Need data and scientific analyze not speculation and imagination

There is no groundwater because it does not rain, and it does not rain because there is no groundwater?

That's it?is there any data to support it?So that mwans the mega city of Beijing ,which is consuming million tonnes of water everyday,has no impact to the water recyling?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

能走多远?

经历了数十年的围湖造田和改造河道、湿地之后,最后还是意识到了自然塑造出来的地貌自有其意义所在。连年的洪灾干旱无情地耻笑了我们的愚行,到现在我们才发现这些“荒地”的实际价值。不过,在一切无可挽回之前意识到了问题和解决的方法,这还是值得高兴。
然而,现在城市的圈地运动还是方兴未艾,在空前的土地压力面前,能有多少土地可以用来承担“留水”的工作?已经用以留水的土地能否保证不会被征用?层出不穷的征地新闻下,到底有多少城市的领导可以下决心将土地用于保护生态上?

How far to go?

After several decades of efforts in reclaiming lands by surrounding and filling in lake bottom,
transforming the river and wetlands, finally people realize that the natural landscape shapes its own significance.

Years of drought and floods mercilessly show how rediculous our folly is. And now we found the actual value of these "waste lands" . Yet, it is still something positive to beware of the problem and the solution before it’s irreversible.

However, the city's enclosure movement is still prevailing. Facing the unprecedented pressure, how much land can be used for fulfilling the commitment to "keep the water"? Will the land used to keep the water be protected from expropriation? Land requisition is covered in news continuously. Then how many leaders in cities are really determined to employ land for the purpose of ecological protection?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

新疆洼地

穿行在新疆时,发现山脚下公路边有很多人工的洼地,积水为这个相对干旱的地区孕育了许多绿色。面对因全球变暖而流失的淡水,刘师父的点子的确很经典!

Hollow in Xinjiang

While navigating through Xinjiang, found that accumulated water at the hollows by the road side at the foot of mountain, which was create through manual work, has incubated lots of green in this drought area. The lost of fresh water due to the global warming that we encountered, the method by Master Liu is a classic!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

当然,我们需要一些想象力!

听来似乎简单,然而,最佳的解决方式不也就是最普通的常识吗?地下水污染修复和湿地更新是保持生态系统健全的主要步骤,因此中国人应该赞同这一点。我不晓得北京是否每天都消耗百万吨的用水,然而,我认为长远来说,你还是可以将所豁出去给收回来。由此而来,在数十年后的尝试之下, 用水的保存最终会有结果:http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200608/21/eng20060821_295356.html

Of course we need some imagination!

It sounds simple enough, but aren't most of the best solutions also the most common sense ones? Groundwater revitalization and wetlands renewal are an important step in maintaining a healthy ecosystem, and the Chinese should be applauded for recognizing this.

I don't know if Beijing consumes a million tons of H2O every day, though I would think you can still get out what you put in, in the long run. And water conservation has finally started to bear fruit after decades of trying:

http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200608/21/eng20060821_295356.html

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

确实, 是与不是

确实: “我试问了水利保持局, 企图寻个明白为什么许昌的地下水在这些年来逐渐的干掉。他们发现,虽然工业或者农业对用水多少造成了影响,然而主因却不在于这一方面所造成的压力,而是我们过度于防范水灾的发生,从而忽略了保存水源。所有的河流管道都被疏通,郊外天然池塘被填补或者池水都被排出。任何时候的降雨,即使是微雨,在还未将土地湿透前,都已经被排到海里。”的确:“中国北部的干旱却直接减少了降雨量。他看了降雨量的数据并且发现了中国北部一些地区的降雨量每年减少700 至800毫米。但是,在1997年与2005年之间,北京的年度降雨量只达466毫米。”绝非:偏低“河水的容量与表面积,引致了缺乏蒸发量,从而影响了区域性的气候,导致降雨量减少而使干旱情况恶化。”降雨主要是来自海水的蒸发,而不是内陆地区。

Yes, yes and No

Yes: "I asked the Water Conservation Department to find out why the ground in Xuchang was getting so much drier every year. They found the main reason was not industry and agriculture’s increasing burden on water resources, although these did have some effect. The main cause was that we were too concerned with flood prevention, instead of water retention. All the river channels had been straightened out, and the natural ponds that used to cover the countryside had either been drained or filled in. Any rain that fell, even light rain, immediately drained away to the sea before it had even wet the soil.”
Yes: "direct cause of the drought is north China’s ever-decreasing rainfall. He looked at rainfall data and found 700-800 millimetres fell every year in some parts of the north China plain. But between 1997 and 2005, the average annual rainfall in Beijing was only 466 millimetres."
No: Lower "volume and surface area of water in rivers, leading to insufficient evaporation, which affects regional climates and leads to a lack of rain – exacerbating the drought."
Rain comes mainly from evaporation from the sea, not from continental areas.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

小水塘

人类有一种希望,是把大地都给碾平;人类也有一种恐惧感,想把所有自然都人工化,以为这样能够让人类获得安全.过去的水塘是人类不小心留下来的,今后,想有心恢复,真的是非常难.据说北京对此颇为积极,但如果要做,首先要改的是雨水的行走路线,让雨水都流到小塘中.如果不改,光铺透水砖,是不够的.一下大雨,仍旧会有大量的雨水被当成洪水排走,而同时,那些缺水的小湖继续干旱.

Little ponds

Man has a hope to flatten the earth. Man also has a fear that unless he manipulates his entire natural environment he will not feel secure.

Small ponds or lakes formed by happenstance, it's just hard to create such ponds as desired. Beijing is said to be enthusiastically active on this issue.

However, the first thing to do should be changing the route of rain water, leading it into the small ponds. Otherwise, it won't work to use water-penetrating bricks only. When the downfall comes, a great amount of water will keep flowing away as floods, while the drought continues, in the arid little ponds.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

野生草的作用

千方百计的留驻雨水,是节约水的好办法,还有在北京的河道两岸还有许多的野生的杂草,它们长的非常茂盛,而且种类很多,有北京的老百姓在周末来这里采菜,而它的上游正在铲除这些杂草,在种上人工的草,长的也不够好,我们认为大可不必这样,野生的草不用人工浇水,也不用人工维护,同时也保护了生物多样性,岂不是两全其美吗!

张王李赵[email protected]

Weeds could be helpful

To do whatever we can do to store rain water is a good way to save water. There are lots of wild plants growing along the river banks in Beijing, many of them are flourishing. Lots of Beijingers go for edible weeds on weekends. However, on the upper stream, workers are getting rid of those weeds, and instead growing grass there, which doesn't grow well. We don't think it is necessary to do so, as the weeds don't need watering or tending, and they also help preserve the biodiversity, so why should we get rid of them?

Zhang-Wang-Li-Zhao
[email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

矛盾

人口太多,加上开发过度. 恨不得到处是水泥地,楼房,那才叫现代化,点缀些盆景,就叫绿化过了。

Contradiction

Modernisation means overpopulation and overdevelopment. The lanscape is filled by concrete and buildings. Even houseplants can be considered afforestation in this scenario.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

“水的节约与利用、水的开源” (1)

我很钦佩刘师傅。我也将我曾经的建议放在这里,与大家共同讨论:我是一个普通市民,只能通过我所能接触到的事来说这件事。

二、水的开源和环境问题
这里我主要提议利用雨水。雨水回收是一项很好的开源项目。今年,老天爷开恩,痛痛快快地下了很多场透雨。但是我们的回笼雨水建设欠缺,破坏雨水回收的非意识行为越来越多,没能很好地珍惜。随着北京城区地界的扩大,水泥越铺越大,隔绝了土地与水的交融,地下水越来越得不到补充,热岛效应越来越明显,北京地界适宜居住指数逐年降低,繁荣的同时,却与大自然越走越远,我们像在快要干枯的河道中的鱼儿,等待着死亡,老舍笔下当年的北平已不再有了。说实在的,从这一点讲,我很为北京悲哀,相信有同感的人一定很多。

如何利用雨水,在这里我提出我的想法:
1、一定要多种树,种速生树、种双排树,种一片桃林、一片柳林、一片杨林、一片松柏,营造满眼的立体绿色,让“地接上天”。种树与盖楼、铺路进行竞赛!(我的一个学林业的朋友说,树多成林,才有了水汽的蒸发,才能将天上的雨水接下来。这是一个循环。)
2、尽量少铺水泥,要铺则铺渗水砖,多种草坪;树底下的腐叶不要清理(白色垃圾除外),冬天的积雪尽量堆在树根下,不要瓤回马路上……,不要做或少做那些“破坏自然自身的良性循环、破坏雨水回收的非意识行为”。
3、马路改造。现在的马路牙子多是高于路面,雨水来了,都排入污水管中了,北京的马路又这么多。多可惜!有什么技术措施,将路面平于或低于草坪,既可稳固路面,又可将雨水灌入草坪,多余的水能够储存。
北海公园的“团城”是怎么干的?想做,一定有办法。
……
水的节约与利用、水的开源,一定有很多办法,希望市政府向专家、向民间征集,并予以奖励!

zlkyc

Water saving (part one)

I admire Mr. Liu. As an ordinary person, I like to give suggestions on things happening to me for discussion with other readers.

I think the use of rain water is of great significance to tackle water shortage problems.
Though there were abundant rainfalls this year, but we do not have enough facilities to store it and people have less awareness to do so.

The further urbanisation of Beijing is leading to the increased cement construction. As a result, underground water cannot be replenished, and the urban heat island effect becomes stronger.

Beijing is gradually losing all its nature and is becoming less agreeable to live. It has lost its attractions described by China's renowned writer Lu Xun. I am sad for Beijing!

I have some ideas regarding how to make a good use of rainwater.

1. plant more trees, especially fast-growing trees, in two rows.

2. use less cement to build roads. Instead, to use bricks through which rainwater can seep, and to grow more grass.

3. roads should be changed so their edges are usually higher than the road surface, which is better for drainage.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

不要吹毛求疵

对于“2007年7月28日6:11 评论编号 : 1 ”的评论,我不同意:太吹毛求疵了。一个只知追求现代化、一个追逐眼前利益而过于浮躁的社会,刘师傅这样的人太难得了。我们只能大唱赞歌、大力呼吁。至于“数据和科学的分析”,只要想解决,专家和政府有这个能力。我们缺的是全民的认识、企业的自觉。
[email protected]

Don't simply try to find faults

I do not agree with the comment no. 6, dated July 28, 2007, that’s just simply fault-finding. We are pursuing modernization and seeking for the benefit of our present society, it is rare to get such a person as Mr Liu. We do not have any other choice but to praise and to urge their awareness. As far as ‘data and scientific analysis’ concerns, if we just think about solving our problems, experts and government definitely would have the ability. However, we lack the recognition from the public and awareness from industry.