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勇敢的小矮人

刘鉴强指出,世界环境日的一系列事件暴露出中国环境管理的危机。要想将这项工作做 好,环保部门需要大力支持。

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在中国,环保局恐怕是最难干的差事。他们要处理的是世界上污染最严重、人口最多的国家,而他们的权力,却与这一重任毫不相称。就像一个小矮人,却要扛起一座大山。

这一点,被北京所刚刚发生的一幕完美地体现。

6月5日是世界环境日,这本应该是政府环保部门最扬眉吐气的一天,自己的节日嘛,可就在这一天,国家环保总局被1000北京市民包围。这些来自北京六里屯的老老少少,穿着统一的白色T恤,上写着“反对在六里屯建垃圾焚烧厂”,围住了环保总局大门。

北京市海淀区的六里屯有一个巨大的垃圾填埋场,这些居民说,这个垃圾场自建成后向周边大气中释放各种毒气,并严重污染地下水源,违法排放垃圾渗漏液,对周边十几万群众的生命安全造成了极大威胁,目前患有肺癌、肺气肿、哮喘、支气管炎、咽炎等症状的病人与日俱增。自2000年以来,附近一个1000多人的社区,有70多人得了癌症,现已有46人去世。这个垃圾场对当地社区的严重污染,已被多家媒体所证实。

北京市计划在此再建一个垃圾焚烧电厂,遭到当地居民和许多环境学者的反对,他们认为焚烧垃圾所产生的毒气二恶英,会严重威胁当地居民的安全。在世界环境日,这些居民聚集在国家环保总局门前,要求它不要批准这一项目。

这是一个令环保总局难堪的局面。在中国,环境问题的核心,不是哪个项目会不会产生污染,而是各种利益团体之间的力量对比。在垃圾焚烧电厂这一项目上也不例外,是否上这一项目,不是看谁更掌握科学,而是看谁更有力气。显然,在“力气”方面,环保总局乏善可陈,尤其当对手是强大的北京市时。北京市已经开了新闻发布会,决意上这个近10亿的大项目,而且,他们宣布说这个项目“毫无污染”。

当环保总局的官员们透过玻璃窗,看到那些愤怒的居民时,肯定很委屈,我似乎能听到他们的叹息声。居民们认为这个叫“环保总局”的部门,对有关“环保”的事情有决定权,事实上,他们错了。他们应该有决定权,但大多数情况下,他们说了不算。关于环境的管理权,分散在不同的部门,城市污水由建设部管,海洋污染由海洋局管,农业污染由农业部管,能源由发改委管。一条河,水利部管水,环保总局管岸上,这边上不了岸,那边下不了水,就像一首歌,“妹妹坐船头,哥哥在岸上走。”因此,环保总局局长潘岳说过:“大家都在抢权,但一出事儿就先找环保,谁叫你全称叫环境保护局的?国际和国内都统统认为你就是中国环境保护的唯一品牌,中国的环境保护出了事儿就是你负责。”

而且,环保总局更委屈的是,作为几乎手无寸铁的弱者,他们已为环境做了许多拼杀,并为此付出了牺牲,比如打击包括三峡总公司在内的30家大型企业,整顿全国违法石油化工企业,刮起一次次“环境风暴”,四面树敌。他们甚至已经超支了其能量,有些激烈的反对特殊利益集团的行为,甚至很难找到法律与职权依据,比如今年年初所实行的“区域限批”,对违反环境法规的四大电力集团和4个地区,不再审批新的工业建设项目。这是环保总局有史以来最严厉的措施,已将自己的力量用到极限,用潘岳的话来说,“环保总局再也没招儿了。”

但是,四处拼杀之后,人们承认环保总局“勇敢”,却也同时看到了它的虚弱。尽管“升格”的呼声很高,但它仍是一个“总局”,而不是国务院独立部委,难以参与政策制定,难以协调其他部委机构、调解环境纠纷,行政权力与能力不足。它想推行绿色GDP,把环境因素加入对官员的考核,从根本上解决中国环境问题,但步履艰难。没人怕环保总局,潘岳自己也说:“如果我是别人,我也不怕。既不能直接叫停项目,罚款也不能超过20万元,不能撤官员的职,连自己的地方部门都管不了,怕它什么?”

在世界环境日,让环保总局难堪的,不仅仅是办公楼被围。在中国东南的厦门,市民们正反对一个投资108亿元的化工项目,这个有巨大风险的工厂,离一个有5000人的学校不到4公里,5公里半径范围内的人口超过10万。

今年3月,环保总局环评司司长祝兴祥会见了要求停止这一项目的当地代表,但表示无能为力,因为项目投产由地方政府主导,已经过国家发改委批准,国家环保总局在此案中爱莫能助。得不到政府帮助的数万居民,最终走上街头,反对工程。

同时,在中国东部经济最发达的长三江地区,最重要的淡水湖太湖发生严重蓝藻污染,150多万人饮用水发臭,无法饮用,造成恐慌。这是中国目前所知最严重的城市饮用水污染事件。

而最早举报太湖污染的农民吴立红,却被当地政府关押。两个月前,吴立红因涉嫌以环保名义敲诈企业钱财被宜兴警方控制,之前他曾致力环境污染举报十余年,被评为“中国十大民间杰出环保人物”。2006年11月,吴立红接受《中国商报》专访时说,治污不力的根本原因是“某些官员充当污染企业保护伞”,吴立红直言,当地人大和政协里面,来自那些污染企业的老板占据了半数以上席位。

尽管力量弱小,环保总局仍在强自撑持。6月7日早上,潘岳通过环保总局网站向社会公布,建议北京市在进行垃圾焚烧发电项目的进一步论证之前,缓建该项目。同时环保总局将对厦门市全区域进行规划环评,希望厦门市政府能参考规划环评结论,对现有规划进行合理调整,尽可能改变化工区紧邻居民区的局面。

潘岳说:“环境问题决非一两个部门能够解决,需要全社会的共同参与。我们希望各级政府提供一个平台,让公众在重大环境事务上享有充分的知情权、监督权和参与权。”

尽管都是“希望”、“建议”,但环保总局一如既往,在重大环境问题上表明自己的立场。但尽管表明了立场,他们仍只是“希望”与“建议”,没有决定权。若要这个勇气可嘉的小矮人扛起环境保护这座大山,只有在制度和法律上,给予它更大的力量。


刘鉴强,北京记者

首页图片John Pasden

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

非常精彩!

可怜可敬的环保总局。利益集团的纠葛,是我们无力干涉的。但作为普通民众,我们应该以自己力所能及的行动来支持环保总局,毕竟环境是我们大家的。我所知道的很多中央高官其实都对环境问题有非常深刻的认识,对环境问题的解决之道有很深入的研究,同时也有有很大的决心来做这件事情。无奈积弊太重,利益集团的纠葛很难一时理清。中国经济的发展让资本越来越有力量,官商勾结让中央决策难以实行。不仅是环境,在很多其它部门,吏治不清都是决策实施的最大障碍。

(P.S.: 作者发表的中文评论:正是英文评论的翻译,请管理员注意编辑一下)

Brilliant!

Pitiful and worshipful SEPA. We are too powerless to influence the struggles between different interest groups. However, as common citizens, we should try our best to take actions to support SEPA, since we concern about our environment.

As I know, many senior officials in the state council profoundly concern about the environmental issues, meanwhile they have great determines to resolve these issues. But the struggles between different interest groups are long-term problems and can not be figured out in a short time. The power of capital gets increasing as the Chinese economy blossoming, the associations of corrupted officials and profiteers dispute implementations of policies that are made by the state council. It is not only in the sector of environmental protection, poor management of official is always the biggest barrier for implementing policies in many other sectors.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

体制的问题!

中国的环境问题根源在体制,只要体制不变,环保在中国只能步步艰辛而收效甚微

The problem is system!

The root of China's environmental problems lies in the system. If the system does not change, then environmental conservation in China can only make gradual, arduous steps forward, and will not have a profound effect.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

好文章

这篇文章阐述了事实真相。如果中国政府要认真的改善环境污染的问题,就必须给予国家环保应有的局权利和资金来采取措施。是污染者对国家环保局有所惧怕的时候了。

Excellent article

This article tells it like it is. If china is serious about fixing its environment, it must give SEPA the power and the funding to do its job. it's time for polluters to become a little scared of SEPA.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

为环保总局叫屈

看了北京记者的文章,非常沉痛的心情。环保总局在一些大型企业家眼里一文不值!我很多次与一些国字头的企业一、二把手共聚晚宴,他们对环保总局掀起的环保风暴当成耳边风,而且对潘岳付总局长进行人身攻击。非常地奇怪,地方上环保局长经常地被当地一把手训斥:谁阻碍了招商引资项目,就让谁下台!不是亲眼所见,你相信吗:宁夏的中卫县免费提供沙漠土地,召来上百个恶劣污染企业入驻直接排放毒水。结果造成了黄河源头的污染。堂堂武汉台商食品工业区引来的数十家食品工业,居然没有污水处理厂,直接排入市区的月牙湖!去武汉市区看看有湖有沟渠的地方,富营养污染和太湖有什么差别?山东齐鲁石化总厂的生产中心排放的有毒气体,足以令人立刻致死。而几十米处居然是职工家属区?云南滇池表面的水已成了绿色的油漆状,可以想象地下水的污染程度。但当地的环保官员却发表声明:不影响饮用水安全标准?!为什么如此声明,因为当地的环保局官员不属于环保总局任命,地方官员掌握着这些官员的生死大权。如此种种,国家环保总局成了单口相声演员,众多企业家们对所有的环保风暴都笑笑而已。导致黄河治理失败、淮河治理失败、大小造纸厂把排污管道修到了长江的深处、大型燃煤电厂的脱硫装置形同虚设,痛心啊,谁能把环保总局当成执法部门?目前只能呼吁:省、市、地、县一把手的责任心、企业家的良心、全体民众的觉悟和参予!求求你们了!!!

Arguing for SEPA

Having read this article from the Beijing-based journalist, my mind is extreme heavy. SEPA means nothing for some of the well-established businesses! I've dined out with the top executives of some of the state-owned companies. They treated environmental movement brought about by SEPA as something of trivial importance, and they even verbally attacked Mr. Pan Yue's personal integrity. It is very strange that the heads of environmental protection bureau are always blamed by their superiors as creators of obstacles for business development and thus as someone who should be kicked out of the place! If it is not seen with my own eyes, I would never believe this: Zhongwei, a county in Ningxia Province, has actually provided desert land for free for hundreds of heavy pollutors and attracted them to build up factories and to pour poisoned water directly. This has polluted the source of Yellow River. The dozens of food producers in the well-known Taiwanese Food Industry Zone in Wuhan has actually no wasted water processing facilities! They are directly giving out their wastes into the Yueya Lake of the city! Go look at the waters in Wuhan, is the situation of abundand nutrition pollution there anything different than that of Tai Lake? The poisoned gas emitted from Qilu Petrochemicals is more than enough to kill a man. But not far away, there's the residential area for the employees!? The surface of Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province has turned paint-like green. You can imagine the degree of pollution underneath. However, the local officials announced publicly that this would never influence the implementation of safety standards for drinking water?! Why did they do this? That's because that the officials in local environmental protection bureau do not report to SEPA, instead, they report to their corresponding regional governments (and are therefore under the latter's control). Because of these, SEPA has become an actor of solo comedy dialogue, with business leaders laughing at their environmental movement and doing nothing more. This is the true reason behind the failure of the cleaning-up of Yellow River and Huaihe River, the construction of some emission pipes leading all the way to the heart of Yangtze River and the invisibility of desulfurization devices in some large scale power plants. How sad it is! Who can build SEPA into the legislation system? What we can do now is only to cross fingers for the top leaders of provincial level, city level, regional level and county level to be responsible, for the business people to have their conscious minds, and for the public as a whole to realize the importance and be part of it! I'm begging for that!!!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

以环境为重,以经济为重?

环境问题已不仅仅是污染问题,它涉及到太多的深层次的问题,地方利益保护、经济发展和环保孰轻孰重?官员的政绩与之密切相关的升迁.....都与环保是把软尺子还是硬杠子,与法律赋予环保局的执法权限(现行的行政处罚权)密切相关。

历史的重任让环保局这个“小矮人“扛?可是他如何面对如此众多的环境灾难?

呼吁全国人大代表关注此事!再这样下去,又好又快的发展是个永不能兑现的承诺!经济发展的成果将会被巨大的经济支付---身体的医疗费用、生态的恢复费用、污染的治理费用.....

经济帐不算都知道,管理不顺的体制必须要让人大代表知晓。

环境保护的NGO组织,让我们声援国家环保局吧。
和他们一起面对险象环生的环境,发出正义的声音和采取环保的行动,救救环境,救救祖孙后代的生存空间。直至污染,监督举报污染的企业,向县级人大反映,要求政府官员负责,建设和谐社会不能让环境成为现在人民和子孙后代永远的痛!

陕西省妈妈环保志愿者 西安环境大使 珙桐

What to prioritize: the environment or the economy?

Environmental problems are no longer merely pollution problems; they affect numerous, multi-faceted issues, such as the protection of benefits, economic development and environmental conservation. Are any of these of greater or lesser importance? The rise of government debt is closely correlated with these issues...Closely related to these issues, moreover, is whether one takes a soft or tough stance on environmental conservation, and what law enforcement rights the judiciary allots to the Environmental Conservation Agency (such as rights to impose administrative penalties). Will the great task of history be carried by this "little man" - the Environmental Conservation Agency? How will it face so many environmental disasters? We should advocate that the National People’s Congress pay close attention to these issues! If we go on this way, positive and rapid development will forever be an empty promise! The consequences of economic development will be matched by massive expenditures: the costs necessary for medical treatment, the regeneration of the eco-system, and the management of pollution…Even discounting the budget, one knows that the National People’s Congress must be made aware of a mechanism that is not smoothly administered.
NGO’s for environmental conservation allow us to show our support for the National Environmental Conservation Agency. Together with them, we can face these ubiquitous dangers to the environment, to advocate justice and undertake actions to conserve the environment, in order to salvage the living environment for future generations. The supervision of polluting businesses must be put before the county-level National Congress, to demand that government officials take responsibility. To establish a harmonious society, one cannot allow the environment to become a lasting grievance for current and future generations!
- Gong Tong: Environmental conservation volunteer from Shaanxi province / Xi’an Environmental Ambassador