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反思中国生物质能源的未来

中国正期待开发生物能源来满足经济发展对能源的需求。但甘霖指出,中国的能源政策不应忽视贫困弱势群体,并认为小规模的生物质能源的利用将有助大幅改善农村社区的生活条件。

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中国目前正处于一个快速工业化的时期,加速融入世界经济,但却为此付出了高昂的代价:化石燃料和其他自然资源的过度开发和使用,给环境带来了巨大的压力。同时,城市与乡村、东部与西部生活水平差距持续扩大,失业率迅速上升。很多人对此表示忧虑:越来越多的社会不公以及由环境压力和生态系统退化带来的冲突将会损害中国的长期繁荣。预计2010年失业人口将达到1亿的新高,其中大部分人来自西部贫困地区,在那里,农民拼命地求取生存,改善家庭生活水平。显然,对于状况不佳的9亿农民赖以生存的农业,中国需要切实可行的解决方案。

在过去的二十多年里,中国农业的发展速度远远低于工业,造成了城乡居民间不平等的迅速扩大。农民工从农村来到城市大多出于经济原因,其中包括:农业生产的低收入,城市扩张导致的土地流失,农业生产机械化的发展。中国西部农村可持续发展面临的主要挑战是:农民收入远远落后于沿海地区居民,生态系统脆弱,持续贫困。而且大多数农民靠燃烧农作物秸秆、木柴和煤来做饭、取暖,造成室内空气污染,严重影响了健康。最为重要的是,目前农民寄希望于从事开采矿物和化石燃料来改善生活,但是这不但不能使他们富裕起来,而且污染了他们的生存环境,破坏了他们赖以谋生的土地。

 

中国政府已经认识到了寻找一个切实可行的解决方案的紧迫性。在构建“和谐社会”旗帜的指引下,政府正在寻找能使农村可持续发展的新方案,更有效地利用资源,并优先考虑拥有广泛市场应用前景的新能源和可再生能源技术。中国地域辽阔、地理构成丰富多样,农林废弃物中蕴藏着大量的生物质资源储备。中国还拥有大量废弃土地,可用于发展生物能源,例如小型和分散型热电联产、生物质家用化和生物燃料开发。

发展生物能源已经成为中国政府的当务之急,并于2006年1月颁布实施了中国可再生能源法。目前的工作重心是利用过剩的农业废弃物发电。据估计,每年农业废弃物可达2亿吨。政府建立的长期目标是,到2020年建立3000万千瓦的生物质发电能力,而这需要数十亿美元的投资。考虑到能源安全,政府对发展生物燃料的兴趣日渐高涨,如生物柴油乙醇。其目的是减少目前占中国石油供应总量46%的石油进口。这足以解释中国政府的一项惊人的公告,即每年从巴西进口100万吨乙醇,这无疑会为中国和世界带来了一个新的商机。

然而,该政策的涉及面过窄,贫困弱势社会群体依然被忽视。虽然生物质电站能够有助于提高生活在没有电力供应的偏远地区贫困人群的生活质量,但是目前该计划主要是在经济发达地区建立大量的示范性生物质发电站,如中国东部的江苏省和山东省。只有在农村居民的居住地发展生物能源并考虑他们的日常需要,他们才能从中受益。

 
 

在有些地区,家庭燃煤对农民的健康造成了严重影响。在贵州省农村,氟中毒或地氟病是一个普遍的健康问题。在受害的1900万贫穷农民中,大多是少数民族地区的妇女、儿童和老人。大多数西部农民仍然依传统方法采用生物质能作为日常燃料,在贫困边远地区尤其如此。然而在较为富裕的沿海地区,农民正在转为使用煤和天然气等商品能源。传统的燃料燃烧浪费了大量能源,因为典型的家用燃炉的热效率大约只有5%到8%。在滇西北的藏区,我访谈的一户农村家庭平均每年使用14到16吨的木柴,大多是上好的原木,由此对森林资源造成了实在的破坏。与之对比,现代生物质家用燃炉的热效率可达30%至40%。使用这种燃炉有益于保护全球环境,改善居民的健康,节约资源并提高农村企业的收入。

 

作为农村可持续发展策略的一部分,中国需要大力改变传统的生物质与化石燃料使用方式,推广现代生物质能技术。这种超常规的跨越需要政府政策的支持。农民可从以下几方面受益:改善健康状况和生活条件,减少化石燃料的使用,提供就业机会并提高收入。如今,农村大多数农业废弃物在田间被燃烧掉,污染空气并浪费资源。若在利用家庭生物质方面投入与生物质发电站等量的资金,不仅能够带来环境效益和社会效益的双赢,还能够为农村居民创造多达5到10倍以上的就业机会,为小公司创造5倍到9倍以上的收入。

支持家用生物质能源的技术开发与市场应用,在减轻城市快速发展的压力的同时,也能大幅改善农村社区的生活条件。迄今为止,中国政府对这些问题的关注远远不够,特别在如何更有效地利用生物质资源推进社会的可持续发展。为保障农村的可持续发展,应建立强有力的政策激励措施,为革新者和小企业提供有利的投资条件,鼓励社会观念的转型和技术创新。在减轻气候变化影响,控制区域环境污染和减少燃煤方面,有利于农村和贫困农民的可持续的能源政策能发挥重要的作用。

 

在国际范围内,生物质能源已经成为了一种新的产业发展动力。政府、企业、机构和个人投资者都把中国看作一个充满机遇的投资热土。通过整合减少温室气体排放和农村能源系统的可持续发展,中国可为其他生物质资源丰富的发展中国家树立了一个榜样,在社会发展和环境保护两方面建立一个双赢的典范。

 

 

甘霖博士,CICERO(奥斯陆大学国际气候与环境研究中心)高级研究员。

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

小型项目能提供足够能源吗?

尽管小规模的生物质能源项目是非常有价值的,并且我相信是环保的,但是它们真的能提供中国发展所需的能源吗?如果不能,也许,它们能与许多较大的帮助中国保持经济增长的生物燃料项目保持平衡吗?

Can small projects provide?

Although small-scale biomass projects are very valuable, and I'm sure very environmentally-friendly, can they really provide the kind of energy China needs for development?

Should they not, perhaps, be balanced with a number of larger biofuel projects which can help China maintain its economic growth?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生物质,是;生物燃料,也许否

我同意在贫困地区把生物质能源的有效利用作为节省资源增加收入的途径。这对农民来说也更为健康。

在山东省有一个25MW的发电站用的就是农业废气物。那是个很大的电站!很多能源!我不知道他们是怎么组织那些废弃物的运送的。肯定有卡车一天24小时的不断运送废弃物过去!那样的话,他们因运送去发电站而耗费的那么多燃料和能源真的物有所值么?生物质能源在小范围内更加有效。它一直以来都是小范围利用的,政府要做的是提高它们的效率。

至于生物燃料,我认为我们完全可以靠电和混合燃料汽车支撑很久,不会依赖任何的燃料。我们现在怎么发起这种变革?生物燃料在大规模下那么没效率,我不在乎它们到底是玉米、糖、还是纤维素!

Yes to biomass, probably no to biofuels

I agree with more efficient use of biomass in poorer areas as a way to save resources and increase income. It is also healthier for the farmers.

There is a 25MW power plant in Shandong Province that is now online and it runs on agricultural waste. That is a huge plant! A lot of power! I wonder how they can organize that much waste being delivered. Trucks must be coming in to deliver it 24 hours a day! In that case, is the amount of fuel and energy they're wasting getting the fuel to the power plant worth it? Biomass is better at a local scale. It has always been done at a local scale, the government should simply make it more efficient.

As for biofuels, I think we can go so much further with electric and hybrid cars, that will not rely on any fuel. How can we start this change now? Biofuels are simply just not that efficient in the grand scheme of things, I don't care whether its corn or sugar or cellulosic!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生物能源真的环保吗?

我们往往只会看到生物能源在使用时的环保,然而,在生产出这些乙醇一类的生物能源的过程里面,它们的环保价值已经大打折扣了。农药和化肥的使用不可避免,还要加上耕作时需要的农业机械的排放,从全过程来看,现行的乙醇燃料并没有想象中那样对减少碳排放有重大作用。因此,在推行生物燃料的时候,我们应该从更长远的目光来着想,谨慎从事,不能让形势的紧迫而轻易作出决策。

Is bioenergy really pollution free?

We only notice that the application of ecoenergy is environmental friendly, but its production is not really the same case.

It is unavoidable to use fertilizer and pesticide. The use of farm machinery will cause emissions.

When we take the whole process into consideration, the use of ethanol fuel is not so helpful as expected in emission cut.

Thus, when we try to promote biofuel, we need to have a long-term view to consider the development of the fuel.

We should be cautious when considering any related measures and avoid making any irrational decisions
under current high energy-demand situation.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

一个案例

今天计划去看一个岳阳的造纸废渣发电厂,但是过去之后发现没有在运转,负责人说机器有故障正在维修。在那里看到每天不断运来的袋装废渣堆积如山,却因为湿度过大无法立刻使用,烘干成本太高,这两天又在下雨。他们20万从一位招标中的获胜者手中买到这一年的废渣供应,但是目前看来还是成本太高,申报中央的补贴还在进行中。设备不新。这个电厂原来是计划经济时代的粮仓的谷糠发电厂,但是现在谷仓进的粮食少了,所以才向外购买造纸废渣。希望他们机器修好的时候,政府补贴也可以到手,尽快运作起来,否则厂子就要被造纸废料埋掉了。

One case

I went to visit a plant in Yueyang which is supposed to use waste from paper making to generate electricty. But actually, the plant is not yet in operation. Those in charge said the facilities were undergoing maintainance.

Everyday, tons of waste is transported to the plant. It was raining as well, so the waste gets wet.

Subsidies from the central government is expected to arrive soon to help the plant upgrade its facilities.

This plant used to use grain bran to generate power, but due to decreasing grain output, it now uses paper-making waste for power generation.

I hope the facilities could be fixed and also financial support from the central government could be delivered soon. Otherwise, the plant will be buried by piles of waste.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生物制气是未来方向

这篇文章没有提及在中国农村越来越普遍的生物制气系统,特别是在很多NGO在推广它们并提供技术支持的时候(实际上,地方政府也会对生物制气进行补贴)

生物制气简单而廉价:只要一个收集人畜排泄物的容器(不过需要2到3个动物来产生足够的排泄物),外加一个收集生成的沼气的管道将它运送到厨房的燃气炉,以此节约购买和燃烧煤/木头的成本。

生物制气同时也是燃烧掉沼气的好办法,把它变成相对安全的气体(在气候变化意义上的危险);它可再生,可持续,成本低,初始投资的回收期为1-3年。

Biogas is the way forward

The article neglects to mention the possibilities of Biogas systems which are becoming more common in rural China, especially as many NGOs promote them, provide technical support and some subsidies (in fact the local governments also subsidise biogas).

Biogas is simple and cheap: just a tank to collect human and animal waste (need at least 2 or 3 animals though to generate enough waste) and then a pipe collects the methane given off and feeds it through to a gas stove in the kitchen, saving on buying and burning coal/wood.

Biogas also is a good way to burn off methane, turning it into less dangerous gases (dangerous in the sense of climate change); it is renewable, sustainable and cost efficient with a pay back time of 1-3 years for the inital investment.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

分布式农村生物质燃气专用的小型热电联产装置

中国地域辽阔、地理构成丰富多样,农林废弃物中蕴藏着大量的生物质资源储备。政府正在寻找能使农村可持续发展的新方案;可用于发展生物能源,例如小型和分散型热电联产、生物质家用化和生物燃料开发。更有效地利用资源,并优先考虑拥有广泛市场应用前景的新能源和可再生能源技术。目前我们正在努力实施,也就在不久一种小型热电联产装置涉及农村生物质能源进行发电制热的带动当地农民致富的项目即告成功。它利用当前农村已有的生物质(秸秆、棉杆等)气化设备产出的燃气输入到小型热电联产装置内使其燃烧加热,该装置就可以发出380伏15千瓦的交流电,可自用和集中发电并网,并利用排出的余热可制热及取暖,以及用于农村的塑料蔬菜大棚保温。是一种农村生物质再生资源高效利用的高技术项目,它不但使农民用户得到实惠,而且与发展农业项目相联系,适合当前中国新农村建设的需要,并迎合当前中国能源产业政策的需要。询问项目进度请联系我们[email protected]

Distributed rural biomass gas dedicated small cogeneration system

China is vast country with great geographical diversity, while agricultural and forestry waste is full of bio fuel possibilities. The government is seeking for new sustainable-developing plans for the rural areas: one of them is to develop biomass-derived resources, like small and distributed cogeneration of heat and electricity, domestic use of biomass, research on biofuels, giving priority to technologies dealing with new energy or renewable energy which also have a broad market prospects. Right now we are putting the plan into action and happy to tell that a project promoting a distributed rural biomass-gas-dedicated small cogeneration system, which also benefits the farmers, is close to success. The system uses materials that are already available such as straw, cotton stalks,etc-gasification equipment imports gas into a small thermal-electricity congenration equipment; burning of the gas generates alternating currents as much as of 380 volts 15,000 watts; The electricity could be used by farmers themselves or combined to a grid, while the rest of heat emission can be used for households or vegetable greenhouses. Technologies utilizing biomass-rich rural waste as such, not only benefit farmers, also help with construction of China's new rural and fitting in with China's current energy policies. To contact us for any further information on recent progress, please email to [email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

农村小型生物质气的热电联产

中国地域辽阔、地理构成丰富多样,农林废弃物中蕴藏着大量的生物质资源储备。政府正在寻找能使农村可持续发展的新方案;可用于发展生物能源,例如小型和分散型热电联产、生物质家用化和生物燃料开发。更有效地利用资源,并优先考虑拥有广泛市场应用前景的新能源和可再生能源技术。目前我们正在努力实施,也就在不久一种小型热电联产装置涉及农村生物质能源进行发电制热的带动当地农民致富的项目即告成功。它利用当前农村已有的生物质(秸秆、棉杆等)气化设备产出的燃气输入到小型热电联产装置内使其燃烧加热,该装置就可以发出380伏15千瓦的交流电,可自用和集中发电并网,并利用排出的余热可制热及取暖,以及用于农村的塑料蔬菜大棚保温。是一种农村生物质再生资源高效利用的高技术项目,它不但使农民用户得到实惠,而且与发展农业项目相联系,适合当前中国新农村建设的需要,并迎合当前中国能源产业政策的需要。询问项目进度请联系我们[email protected]

bio resources in the countryside

China has vast land area and geographical diversity, rural waste is full of bio fuel possibilities.

The government is seeking new plans for the rural areas; to develop bio resources, like small and fragmented production of heat and electricity, domestic use of bio materials, biofuels development. This makes more effective use of resources and technologies already available and that which enjoys excellent prospects. Right now we are putting into use a type of small thermal-electricity producer. This uses materials already available such as wheat stalks, cotton stalks--the gas is then fed into a small thermal-electricity contraption to heat it,out comes alternating currents electricity of 380 volts 15,000 watts,that farmers could use themselves or put onto a grid, the resulting heat can be used for households or vegetable greenhouses. This sort of technology makes excellent use of rural waste,it's not just practical and useful for farmer users, it meets the needs of building China's new countryside and fits in with China's energy policies. Email us to enquire about progress -- [email protected]

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

异想天开

楼上是在异想天开,中国允许农民将用不了的电上网吗?而且是分布式.另外农民很穷能买起发电机吗?
请与我联系:[email protected] 我姓张

Bats in the belfry

This comment is quite crazy. Will China’s government really allow farmers to go online by using the balance of electricity? Moreover, it is a question of distribution style. Besides, farmers are poor, could they afford generators? Please contact me:[email protected] My surname is Chang

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

生物质气的热电联产

真正的发电是不需要高大的厂房\昂贵的设备\复杂的维护\

Electricity and heat generation with biogas

The actual electricity generation does not require tall production room, expensive equipment, complicated maintenances.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

热电

发电的技术必须是一种不同于内燃机\蒸汽轮机\燃气轮机的一种新式的革命式的发电方式,是世界上独一无二的高新技术

Thermoelectricity

Generating electricity must be different to internal combustion engine, steam turbines or gas turbines: a revolutionary way to produce electricity that is more sophisticated than any other technology in the world.